Vol. 18, No. 43 – November 17, 2019
III. The Ministry of the Son of Man to Men, Luke 4:14-9:50.
D. Activities of His Ministry, Luke 7:1-9:50.
9. Ministry in death and despair, Luke 8:40-56, (continued).
Vs. 49-56, Jairus’ daughter raised.
Luke 8:49, “While He was still speaking, someone came from the house of the synagogue official, saying, ‘Your daughter has died; do not trouble the Teacher anymore’.”
In this passage, “synagogue official,” is the compound word ARCHISUNAGOGOS, ἀρχισυνάγωγος that means, “ruler of a synagogue or presiding officer,” and is equivalent to ARCHON TES SUNAGOGES used in vs. 41. Here, a family member or servant of this official, “from the house of,” which in the Greek simply reads, TIS PARA, “someone from,” and uses the Genitive of Relationship for ARCHISUNAGOGOS. So “house” is not in the Greek, but is used to tell us of the family relationship. That is why it is in italics.
The report from this family member was that “his daughter had died,” THUGATER THNESKO. The desperate situation that Jairus was under to save his daughter that was close to death had ended in their eyes; so they thought. As a result, they also instructed Jairus, “not to trouble the Teacher anymore,” MEKETI, “no longer, no more, no further,” SKULO, “trouble or bother,” (in the Imperative Mood), HO DIDASKALOS “the Teacher.”
It is interesting that Jesus had just healed the woman who had hemorrhaged for 12 years. That should have caused Jairus and the messenger to have greater faith. But it did not. The situation was now hopeless to them. Possibly because it is one thing to heal the sick, yet it is another to raise the dead, which seemed impossible to them.
Luke 8:50, “But when Jesus heard this, He answered him, ‘Do not be afraid any longer; only believe, and she will be made well’.”
Jesus tries to encourage Jairus by saying, “do not fear,” ME PHOBEO, that in essence means, “do not worry or be concerned about this situation.” Jesus said this because He knew what He could do for this young girl according to the Father’s Plan, and to encourage Jairus not to despair over the news of his daughter’s death.
Jesus then instructs them all saying in the Imperative Mood, “only believe,” PISTEUO that means, “believe, have faith in, be convinced of, trust, rely on, or have confidence in.” This is also somewhat of a conditional clause, as your Lord also tells them “and she will be made well / saved,” as in vs. 48, for the hemorrhaging woman, KAI SOZO in the Future, Passive, Indicative. This is not a true conditional clause, as our Lord would heal this young girl regardless of their faith, as we will see. But, our Lord, the Teacher, is trying to teach them a principle of faith by exhorting them even more so.
Principle: The same faith that saved the woman will save the girl. Sickness or death, it does not matter; the result is the same.
Luke 8:51, “When He came to the house, He did not allow anyone to enter with Him, except Peter and John and James, and the girl’s father and mother.”
When Jesus went to the home of Jairus “He did not allow anyone to enter with Him.” “Not allow,” is the Negative OUK with APHIEMI that has many nuances including “forgive, pardon, or remit,” which is many times used for the forgiveness of our sins, Luke 5:21, 23; Mat 9:2, 5; 1 John 1:9. Here, it means Jesus did not let anyone else enter, i.e., “go into the home” with Him, other than those mentioned next.
Nevertheless, with APHIEMI, “forgiveness,” we have a link of our Lord’s healing and raising with His completed work upon the Cross for the forgiveness of our sins. This is another object lesson of the Cross.
“Not allowing others to enter,” also speaks to our Lord’s sovereign choice and will. Just as God decides whose penalty of sin is forgiven and whose is not, based on His sovereignty; coupled with His simultaneous Omniscient foreknowledge of who would believe and who would not believe. Everyone has the opportunity for their sins to be forgiven and receive healing and resurrection, because of the Cross of Jesus Christ, but only those that believe in Him actually receive it, based on God’s sovereign will coupled with His simultaneous foreknowledge of their faith. God’s sovereign will always takes into consideration man’s free will to believe or not believe.
As the previous healing was done in public, this one was a private matter, just as our resurrection is a private matter between us and God. Only the believer will enter into God’s eternal glory through resurrection, while the unbeliever remains outside in their sin.
Now, Jesus did allow Peter, and the brothers John and James to enter. This is the first time in Luke that these three are singled out from the rest of Jesus’ followers. These three are part of the “inner circle,” of Jesus that He has a special relationship with and exclusively includes in several events throughout His ministry. They represent the believers who can enter into God’s glory, Luke 9:28, (the Transfiguration); cf. Mat 26:37; Mark 14:33, (at Gethsemane).
He also allows the young girl’s father and mother to enter, because this is a family matter. Only the Family of God will be resurrected. The rest, the unbelievers, will remain outside, 1 Cor 5:13; Rev 22:15; cf. analogy noted in Luke 8:20, of Jesus’ family.
Luke 8:52, “Now they were all weeping and lamenting for her; but He said, ‘Stop weeping, for she has not died, but is asleep’.”
“All were weeping and mourning,” PAS KLAIO KAI KOPTO, is in the Imperfect, Indicative for ongoing or repetitive action. We have seen KLAIO several times in Luke’s Gospel, Luke 6:21, 25; 7:13, 32, 38, and twice in this verse. It means, “weep, mourn, lament, cry, or show emotion.” It is an audible act of morning.
KOPTO is used for the first time by Luke in this passage, but is used by Matthew, Mat 11:17; 21:8; 24:30, and Mark, Mark 11:8, and John in the Book of Revelation, Rev 1:7; 18:9. In all, it speaks to various events where people are or will “mourn or lament,” or “cut off palm branches” for the Lord’s triumphal entry, Mat 21:8; Mark 11:8. Also Mat 24:30; Rev 1:7, both speak of the people of the earth mourning or lamenting when they see “the Son of man coming on the clouds.” Therefore, KOPTO means, “to strike (as in striking or beating the breast), to lament, mourn, smite, or to cut from or cut off.” It is a physical act of mourning.
In classical Greek, it describes a funeral dirge or lament which could be marked by violent demonstrations of grief such as striking the head or chest while walking in the funeral procession. That is how Matthew used it in Mat 11:17, where Luke used THRENO, in “playing the flute, and sand a dirge,” Luke 7:32. At times, this was done to honor the deceased, while at other times the purpose was to drive away evil spirits, as evil spirits are what cause disease and death.
Interestingly, “weeping and lamenting,” KLAIO and KOPTO are paralleled with “dead and sleep,” APOTHNESKO and KATHEUDO, below.
Now “all,” PAS, most likely does not include Peter, John, James, and her parents. It seems that there were others already in the house lamenting over her according to Mathew’s and Mark’s account. In those accounts, Jesus kicks the family out of the house, signifying their unbelief as we have noted with the “outsiders.”
Mark 5:40, “They began laughing at Him. But putting them all out, He took along the child’s father and mother and His own companions, and entered the room where the child was.”
But in Luke, Jesus told them to “Stop weeping,” ME KLAIO, “for she has not died,” OUK APOTHNESKO, “but is asleep,” ALLA KATHEUDO that means, “sleep, die, be dead.” Here, we have two words for “dead or death,” that Jesus’ uses to show a difference between them.
The first APOTHNESKO means, “an end of life,” and includes both physical death and spiritual death as used in the LXX for MUTH in Gen 3:3; cf. 1 Cor 15:22; Rom 8:19-22; Eph 2:1. It signifies the natural, human death when the soul departs the body. By Jesus’ death on the Cross, Christ conquered him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, Heb 2:14. Christ therefore delivers the believer from spiritual death. In Him, there is also the promise of bodily resurrection from the dead, 1 Cor 15:21-22. The one who believes in Christ will never die, John 11:26, but is passed from death to life. And, anyone who does not receive Him who is the resurrection and the life, John 11:25, will die in his sins, John 8:24. This is not only a bodily death, an end to this earthly life, but an eternal death, 2 Thes 1:9, which is the second death.
On the other hand, KATHEUDO that is typically translated “sleep,” is used for literal sleep or sleeping, and as here, has a figurative use for “dead or die,” similar to KOIMAOMAI used in 1 Cor 11:30; 15:6, 18, 20, 51; 1 Thes 4:13-15; 2 Peter 3:4, that speak of the believer who is physically dead, yet will be resurrected to eternal life with a new resurrection body. KATHEUDO also speaks to those who do not prepare for the Second Coming of Christ or who are spiritually unaware. They are said to be asleep, 1 Thes 5:7. Yet, the believer is admonished to awake out of sleep and prepare for Christ’s coming, Eph 5:14; 1 Thes 5:6.
Therefore, in Luke’s application here, APOTHNESKO is speaking of the death due to sin from which there is no return from, resulting in eternal condemnation, the second death. And KATHEUDO is speaking about physical death that can result in a resurrection due to faith in Christ that leads to resurrection to eternal life. The point is the contrast between death and sleep; death is not final, for it is possible to be wakened from it. What is death to people can be nothing more than sleep when Jesus is involved, cf. John 11:11-14.
As such, Jesus is saying that this girl, though she is physically dead, will rise from that death to life again. He states, “do not despair,” because death is not the end for the believer. For the believer, there is the hope of resurrection to eternal life.
Luke 8:53, “And they began laughing at Him, knowing that she had died.”
Here is where we see the family’s disbelief, “They began laughing at Him,” which is the Imperfect, Active, Indicative of the Verb KATAGELAO that means, “laugh at, ridicule, jeer, deride.” This word is only used in this narrative here and in Mat 9:24; Mark 5:40. It means showing contempt for someone and the scornful laughter on the basis of supposedly better information. It includes verbal communication, cf. Sarah in Gen 18:12. Therefore, it shows an air of superiority and ridicule on the part of the family, as they verbally doubted Jesus’ words. They were trampled, rocky, and thorny soil souls that did not believe His words. Therefore, the people ridiculed Jesus verbally thinking they knew more or knew better than He did. In their unbelieving arrogance, they criticized Him.
This is not the mourning turning to laughter (GELAO) that Jesus spoke about in Luke 6:21, “Blessed are you who hunger now, for you shall be satisfied. Blessed are you who weep now, for you shall laugh.”
This laughter was due to unbelief because they thought they knew better, “knowing that she had died,” OIDA, “know fully; understand, recognize,” with HOTI APOTHNESKO, the first dead from vs. 52.
Luke 8:54, “He, however, took her by the hand and called, saying, ‘Child, arise!’”
“Taking her by the hand,” would have rendered Jesus “unclean,” just as the woman’s touch in the previous healing would have, but once again Divine power trumps tradition and the Law. Jesus is the Lord of the Law, as He also showed He was the Lord of the Sabbath. The Law was not created to render sin, but to demonstrate God’s healing love of sin. That is what Jesus was doing!
The touching also shows the transfer of sin from the sinner to Jesus, who took on the sin and paid for it, so that the sinner would be forgiven, APHIEMI, and saved, SOZO, and raised to eternal glory.
“Child,” is PAIS, that can also mean son or daughter, cf. Mat 19:13ff; 18:3 for faith like a child that saves.
“Arise,” is the familiar EGIERO, in the Present, Active, Imperative for the command. It is the familiar word for to raise or resurrection. As we have noted, technically this is a resuscitation, because this girl was raised back to physical life and would have to die physically again, whereas “resurrection,” is the technical term for raise to eternal glory, never to die again. It was also used in conjunction with KATHEUDO above, as it can mean, “wake up,” from sleeping.
This was the picture of our resurrection to eternal glory found in the saving work of Jesus Christ upon the Cross who took on our sins and paid for them so that the sinner would be forgiven and raised to eternal glory.
Luke 8:55, “And her spirit returned, and she got up immediately; and He gave orders for something to be given her to eat.”
“Spirit,” is PNEUMA that also indicates she was a believer, as the unbeliever only has a soul, PSUCHE and a body, SOMA, and is dichotomous, without spiritual life, while the believer has a soul, spirit, and body, having been “born again” to spiritual life, trichotomous.
This also proves that she was physically dead, not just in a coma as some idiots speculate. As her spirit “returned,” EPISTREPHO, which Luke first used in the prophecy of John the Baptist’s birth in Luke 1:16 “And he will turn many of the sons of Israel back to the Lord their God.”
Next, we see the young girl “got up immediately,” which is the other popular word for resurrection, ANISTEMI, 1 Thes 4:14, 16, with the Adverb PARCHREMA.
1 Thes 4:13-18, “But we do not want you to be uninformed, brethren, about those who are asleep, so that you will not grieve as do the rest who have no hope. 14For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so God will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep in Jesus. 15For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. 16For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord. 18Therefore comfort one another with these words.”
To prove that the girl had come back to life Jesus “gave orders,” DIATASSO, διατάσσω that means, “give orders, direct, command, etc.,” “to give her something to eat,” ESTHINO, ἐσθίω, which reminds us of the body of Jesus, the bread, we eat in remembrance of Him, 1 Cor 11:24-26. In addition, as a physician, Luke understood that a restored appetite signaled a return to health, and that is what Jesus wanted to demonstrate to the family.
Luke 8:56, “Her parents were amazed; but He instructed them to tell no one what had happened.”
As a result of our Lord’s resuscitation of the 12 year old girl, her “parents,” GONEUS, γονεύς, were “amazed,” EXISTEMI, ἐξίστημι that here means, “be amazed or astonished,” therefore they were “blown away,” which Luke first used in Luke 2:47, for the people in the temple that heard Jesus speak when He remained behind after the Passover at age 12.
Luke 2:47, “And all who heard Him were amazed at His understanding and His answers.”
So, Luke brings the analogy full circle with this word. Jesus was 12, the girl was 12. Jesus was the only begotten, the girl was the only begotten. Jesus was raised to eternal glory; the girl was raised back to life. What Jesus did for this girl, is what happened to Him at the hands God the Father. What happened to Jesus, God the Father will do for you and I who believe in Jesus as our Savior.
After raising this girl Jesus “instructed them to tell no one what had happened.”
“Instructed,” is the same word and command he gave to the healed leper in Luke 5:14, PARANGELLO, παραγγέλλω that means, “transmit, give orders, command, or instruct.” His command or instruct was “not to tell anyone what happened,” which He will also instruct the disciples to do in Luke 9:22. There we see the reasoning why Jesus does not want people to be speaking about these things at this time. In Luke 9:22, Jesus was “saying, ‘The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed and be raised up on the third day’.” Therefore, it was not time for Jesus to be crucified. If the people spoke about these things at this time, it would incite the unbelieving Pharisees and Scribes to seize Him and try to kill Him. Yet, it was not time for that. That time of hatred would come soon enough, but Jesus had more to do beforehand. Therefore, He instructs them to keep it quiet for now.
Also His counsel stands in sharp contrast to the cleansing of the demoniac in the Decapolis. In that case, the unbelieving Gentiles feared Jesus’ Divine power and sent Him away. In Galilee, however, the Lord’s popularity made it difficult for Him to move about freely, even though He thinned the crowds by speaking in parables. Telling everyone about the resuscitation of the girl would not have advanced His mission at this time.
In both stories of healing, from illness and death, Jesus is showing everyone, including you and I today, His healing power in our lives, especially over sin and Satan, that brought death and disease into the world. With the parallels of these two woman with Christ, we see Jesus’ work on our behalf at the Cross that brings healing and forgiveness of sin to those who believe upon Him, that also result in resurrection to eternal life, as He demonstrated in His own situation of death, being resurrected on the third day. Therefore, as “good soil,” souls, we are to have faith in Him and continue to increase our faith in Him so that we grow closer to Him and the Father and have an abundance of Divine Good Production. By witnessing the work of Jesus in the lives of others, we should gain greater faith in our lives every day. And by walking in faith daily, you will be a witness to others of Jesus’ saving power that will lead them to faith too! All to the praise and glory of our great God and Savior!
Outline for Chapter 9:
III. The Ministry of the Son of Man to Men, Luke 4:14-9:50.
D. Activities of His Ministry, Luke 7:1-9:50.
10. Ministry through the disciples, Luke 9:1-10a.
11. Ministry to physical needs, Luke 9:10b-17.
12. Ministry of prediction, Luke 9:18-50.
IV. The Repudiation of the Son of Man by Men, Luke 9:51-19:27.
A. Rejection by Samaritans, Luke 9:51-56.
B. Rejection by Worldly Men, Luke 9:57-62.
Luke Chapter 9, is paralleled beginning in Mat 10:1, where Jesus gives much greater instruction to the disciples in preparing them for ministry, which Luke records in his Chapter 10 regarding the sending out of the 70 disciples. Then in Matthew’s Gospel, much of what Luke has already noted about Jesus’ ministry takes place, and in Chapter 14, Matthew tells about the feeding of 5,000, that Luke mentions in vs. 10-17. We will note where the other accounts in Luke’s gospel take place in Matthew’s. Similarly, in Mark’s Gospel, this narrative begins in Mark 6:7, and then the other actions that Luke notes in our chapter, happen later in Mark’s Gospel, as we will note.
In Luke’s Gospel Chapter 9, we begin to see the Galilean phase of Jesus’ ministry come to a close. In this chapter we will see:
- The sending out of the Twelve, vs. 1-10a.
- The miraculous feeding of the 5,000, vs 10b-17.
- The questioning of “who they thought Jesus was,” vs. 18-22.
- The exhortation to follow Him by “carrying your own cross,” vs. 23-26.
- The Transfiguration, vs. 27-36.
- The casting out of another demon, vs. 27-43a.
- The prediction of His crucifixion, vs. 43b-45.
- The argument among the apostles as to who was the greatest, vs. 46-50.
- The rejection by the Samaritans with James’ and John’s request to destroy them, vs. 51-56.
- The half-hearted requests to follow Jesus, vs. 57-62.
We begin with: The Ministry through the disciples, Luke 9:1-10a, where Jesus sends out the twelve.
This is the scene where Jesus sends out the 12 Apostles on their own, to witness the Gospel of the Kingdom to the people of Israel. During this time the disciples have been in training, and are being prepared for a larger role in the ministry of Jesus, as they will soon have more responsibility than they ever imagined.
In sending them, Jesus gave them the power to cast out demons and heal the sick with some specific instructions. As noted above, Matthew gives much greater detail about the instructions Jesus gave the twelve in order to prepare them for ministry, than Mark or Luke report. Therefore, our first principle is that much instruction in the Word of God is necessary before one begins his or her ministry in Christ.
Luke 9:1, “And He called the twelve together, and gave them power and authority over all the demons and to heal diseases.”
First, we see Jesus “called together,” SUNKALEO, the “twelve,” DODEKA, after the brief separation of Luke 8:51f. Here we see the number 12 once again, as we noted the 12 year old girl and woman who was hemorrhaging for 12-years at the end of Chapter 8. Luke must have been grouping the 12’s. As we noted, 12 is the number of perfect government or governance, and the 12 Apostles represent the perfect governance for witnessing the Gospel of the Kingdom of God / heaven to the people of Israel at this time. We also know that 11 of the 12 would become part of the 12 Apostles of the Church, with Judas’ removal and Paul’s insertion, to begin and lead the Church in the dispensation of the Church Age.
To prepare these men for this specific journey, Jesus “gave them power and authority,” DUNAMIS, which is, “inherent power, might, ability, and force,” to rule, that Matthew and Mark do not use. It was the Divine ability to accomplish the impossible. Jesus infused them with capabilities they did not have on their own, cf. Luke 4:14, 36; 5:17; 6:19; 8:46.
The second thing Jesus gave them was “authority,” EXOUSIA, which is, “authority, right, or power” to rule. It is the right to carry out the Lord’s mission. As Jesus had the power and authority to do these things by the great Plan of God the Father, so too are these disciples given this power and authority from Jesus/God.
This also would identify these men as being from God, just as Jesus performing miracles showed He was the Son of God. Therefore, it was like a credit card that gave them access to the hearts and minds of the people so they could preach the gospel.
“Although the disciples would experience the power and authority given to them by Jesus, they also would find out that they must live the same life of poverty, rejection, and dependence upon God as Jesus did.” (Complete Biblical Library Commentary – Luke.) Cf. Luke 9:57-62.
The things these disciples would rule “over,” EPI, were “all the demons,” PAS HO DAIMONION, and “diseases,” NOSOS, cf. Luke 4:40; 6:18; 7:21. The result would be that they would “heal,” THERAPEUO, those people, just as Jesus had.
Luke 9:2, “And He sent them out to proclaim the kingdom of God and to perform healing.”
Here, Jesus “sent them out,” APOSTELLO AUTOS. This is where we get the title for the Apostles. We see in vs. 1, Jesus “called” these men to Him, and then “sent them out” to witness. The same occurs for every believer. Jesus first calls us to His Kingdom for salvation and with that we are given a commission as Royal Ambassadors for Christ to witness the gospel of Jesus Christ and the greater truths of His Word.
These men were to “proclaim,” KERUSSO, “the kingdom,” BASILEIA, “of God,” HO THEOS. It means witnessing the gospel of Jesus Christ. They have the authority as the representative KERUX of the king to proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ.
“And to perform healing,” KAI IAOMAI, which is the other word for healing synonymous to THERAPEUO. Some manuscripts read, “heal the sick,” that includes HO ASTHENEO, “the sick, weak, unhealthy, or those in need.” In either case, the healing was for those who were demon possessed or those with various ailments. But more importantly, it means to heal the soul of the unbeliever of the negative effects of sin, by bringing the gospel of Jesus Christ into their lives. This was the power given to them to back up their authority as witnesses for Jesus Christ.
Jesus proclaimed the kingdom of God, but He did so on His own authority as its King. Now, He sent the 12 with His authority to proclaim and His power to back up their proclamation.
Luke 9:3-5, “And He said to them, ‘Take nothing for your journey, neither a staff, nor a bag, nor bread, nor money; and do not even have two tunics apiece. 4Whatever house you enter, stay there until you leave that city. 5And as for those who do not receive you, as you go out from that city, shake the dust off your feet as a testimony against them’.”
As noted above, here Luke records only a brief amount of our Lord’s instructions when sending out the 12, while Matthew includes much more in his Chapter 10:9-15, which Luke records when our Lord sent out the 70 disciples in pairs of two, in Luke’s Chapter 10. Mark 6:7-11, is more similar to Luke’s account, yet Mark says the 12 were sent in pairs in vs. 7.
In Luke 9:3, our Lord instructs them to “taking nothing” with them “for the journey.” He then lists 5 items, (the number of grace), to leave behind; a staff, a bag, bread, money, and an extra tunic. Mark says the exception was to take a staff.
“Staff,” RHABDOS, ῥάβδος, which is a “rod, staff, stick.” It represents a walking stick for a traveler, the shepherds staff for guidance and protection, a rod used to beat grain in harvest, the staff of authority, and a measuring stick. It occurs 12 times in the NT, continuing the analogy of perfect governance. This was a safety item travelers carried to protect themselves.
“Bag,” PERA, πήρα, which is, “a leather bag for provisions, knapsack, or wallet.” It was used for carrying personal belongings, or food and supplies, and a sometimes it was a type of begging bag for collecting funds.
“Bread,” ARTOS, ἄρτος the common word for “bread, loaf of bread, or food in general.”
“Money,” ARGURION, ἀργύριον is, “silver, money, or a piece of silver.” We would say currency to purchase things we need.
“Tunics,” CHITON, χιτών that means, “tunic or inner garment.” This is the inner garment or shirt worn next to the skin. We could even call it “underwear,” as we have today. So they were not to even bring a change of underwear!
All of these things speak to the provisions necessary for life, the logistical grace blessings that God provides us. They all also have analogy for what the Word of God does for us and means to us every day. But, the point here is that Jesus tells them to leave these things behind so that they will have to depend 100% on God to provide for their everyday needs, including defending them from evil. Therefore, this was an object lesson for the disciples to not supply their own resources to meet their daily needs, but instead to trust and rely upon God to provide for their daily needs; just as you and I should be trusting in God and His Word to provide for all of our daily needs.
This is the lesson Jesus intended for them to learn, as later in Luke 22:35, during the Passover Supper, He recalled that they had learned this lesson.
Luke 22:35, “And He said to them, ‘When I sent you out without money belt and bag and sandals, you did not lack anything, did you?’ They said, ‘No, nothing’.”
Right after that in vs. 36, our Lord instructed them to take these things along with them in the future, as He was about to be crucified and people would not be as generous towards them because of their leader’s demise. The hardening of the people’s heart towards God would cause them to need to take along provisions, which too God would provide, only not through the people.
In Luke 9:4, we see the generosity of the people they would witness too, “Whatever house you enter, stay there until you leave that city.” Cf. Mat 10:11. There would be one generous family in each town or city they visited. Jesus did not want them to bounce around from one house to another within the city, because of the optic it would have on them as being beggars or swindlers.
In vs. 5, “And as for those who do not receive you, as you go out from that city, shake the dust off your feet as a testimony against them’.”
“Shake the dust off your feet,” uses the Present, Active, Imperative for a command of the Verb APO-TINASSO, ἀποτινάσσω, “shake off.” It is only used here and Acts 28:5, for Paul shaking off a poisonous snake from his hand. In our passage, it is a symbolic use, as a Rabbinic thought that the Jews who traveled through Gentile lands would shake the dust from their feet when they returned to Palestine, as the heathen’s dust was considered a defilement. And here, those who rejected the apostles, who were bringing Christ’s message, were acting like heathens and would be held accountable in the Day of Judgment. Therefore, this was a symbol of the people’s rejection of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, “as a testimony against them,” MATURION, “testimony, witness, proof, or evidence,” EPI AUTOS, “against them,” that if sustained would result in their convicting judgment to the eternal Lake of Fire. Cf. Mat 10:14; Mark 6:11; Acts 13:51; 18:6, using EKTINASSO for “shake off.”
It was also for the Apostles psyche in that they were not to take the rejection personally. As such, the people were not rejecting them but the Gospel of Jesus Christ and therefore God and His Plan for their salvation. Jesus used the image to encourage the 12 to put rejection behind them and to pursue their cause wherever opportunities arose. So, it was an ominous sign to the rejecting people, and an encouraging counsel to the Apostles.
Luke 9:6, “Departing, they began going throughout the villages, preaching the gospel and healing everywhere.”
Here the disciples begin their personal journey’s where they were not accompanying our Lord. They were off on their own “preaching the gospel,” EUANGELIZO, εὐαγγελίζω, “bring or announce good news, proclaim, or preach (the gospel).”
They also were “healing,” THERAPEUO, “everywhere,” PANTACHOU, πανταχοῦ that means, “all places, everywhere.” They were saving souls, while also saving bodies from various ailments.
Luke 9:7-9, “Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was happening; and he was greatly perplexed, because it was said by some that John had risen from the dead, 8and by some that Elijah had appeared, and by others that one of the prophets of old had risen again. 9Herod said, ‘I myself had John beheaded; but who is this man about whom I hear such things?’ And he kept trying to see Him.”
This section is paralleled in Mat 14:1-2; Mark 6:14-16; cf. Mat 16:14.
These verses are added to set up our Lord’s questioning of the disciples upon their return in, vs. 18-20. This is what they were finding and hearing during their missionary journeys. In addition, it is what Herod Antipas was saying too, as the “head” of the people in Galilee. Remember, this Herod was the son of Herod “the Great,” from Luke 1:5. As we have noted, when his father died, 4 B.C., he became a tetrarch. He ruled Galilee and Perea until he was removed from his throne and exiled by Emperor Caligula in 39 A.D. for asserting his right to be called “king.”
Since Herod was ruler over much of the area in which Jesus’ ministry took place, it is not unusual that he would be interested in what was going on throughout his region.
“Perplexed,” is the Verb DIAPOREO, διαπορέω that means, “be greatly perplexed, be at a loss, or to be in doubt.” Only Luke uses this word here and Luke 24:4, for the woman at Jesus’ tomb post-resurrection, Acts 2:12, for the people who heard the Apostles preaching the Gospel at Pentecost in foreign languages, Acts 5:24, for the captain of the temple guard and chief priest hearing the miraculous release of the apostle from jail, Acts 10:17, for Peter’s perplexity regarding his vision of the unclean animals becoming clean to eat.
What Herod and the people were “perplexed over” was first “all the things happening,” which means the teaching, miracles, signs, and wonders Jesus, and now the disciples, were performing. In addition, there were the rumors about Jesus and who He was. Herod had heard that some said Jesus was “John the Baptist who had risen from the dead.” Matthew and Mark tell us that this was Herod’s own view, probably due to his guilt and paranoia for killing John. Others said He was the reincarnation, apparition, or resurrection of Elijah or one of the Old Testament prophets.
“Herod said, ‘I myself had John beheaded; but who is this man about whom I hear such things?’ And he kept trying to see Him.”
“Beheaded,” is the Verb APOKEPHALIZO, ἀποκεφαλίζω that means, “to cut off the head or behead,” that is only used in Mat 14:10; Mark 6:16, 27; and here. The other two synoptic gospels tell about John’s beheading at this point, Mat 14:6-10; Mark 6:17-29, which we have previously read and noted, yet Luke does not go into any detail in his gospel about that situation other than to say he was imprisoned by Herod, Luke 3:20.
The last phrase, “And he (Herod) kept trying to see Him,” sets up the storyline of Jesus’ trials prior to his crucifixion that included a presence before Herod where he mocked and abused Jesus, Luke 23:6-12. Therefore, this desire to “see him,” was prompted only by curiosity or malice, not by faith.
Luke 9:10a, “When the apostles returned, they gave an account to Him of all that they had done.”
This is paralleled in Mark 6:30. Note that they are now described, not as “disciples,” MATHETES, but as “Apostles,” APOSTOLOS. Clearly this refers to the new activities of preaching and healing that the disciples are involved in.
The Apostles then “gave an account,” DIEGEOMAI, διηγέομαι that means, “describe, show or tell, relate fully, or conduct a narration through to the end.” In other words, they gave a detailed report of what they had seen, said, and done in all the places they had visited. We do not know how long they were on this missionary journey, where they visited, or what they did. We do not have any details given to us about their journey, but the Lord, their King and Sender, received a full accounting, just as we will give a full accounting of our lives to Him at the BEMA Seat, 1 Cor 3:10-15.
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If you would like more information on this subject, you may watch/listen to lesson:
#19-120 & 19-121 & 19-122
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A PERSONAL NOTE FOR YOU
If you have never accepted Jesus Christ as your Lord and Savior, I am here to tell you that Jesus loves you. He loves you so much that He gave His life for you. God the Father also loves you. He loves you so much that He gave His only Son for you by sending Him to the Cross. At the Cross Jesus died in your place. Taking upon Himself all of your sins and all of my sins. He was judged for our sins and paid the price for our sins. Therefore, our sins will never be held against us.
Right where you are, you now have the opportunity to make the greatest decision in your life. To accept the free gift of salvation and eternal life by truly believing that Jesus Christ died for your sins and was raised on the third day as the proof of the promise of eternal life.
So right now, you can pause and reflect on what Christ has done for you and say to the Father:
“Yes Father, I believe that Your Son, Jesus Christ,
died on the cross for the forgiveness of my sins.”
If you have done that, I welcome you to the eternal Family of God!