Outline for Chapter 9:
III. The Ministry of the Son of Man to Men, Luke 4:14-9:50.
D. Activities of His Ministry, Luke 7:1-9:50.
10. Ministry through the disciples, Luke 9:1-10a.
11. Ministry to physical needs, Luke 9:10b-17.
12. Ministry of prediction, Luke 9:18-50.
IV. The Repudiation of the Son of Man by Men, Luke 9:51-19:27.
A. Rejection by Samaritans, Luke 9:51-56.
B. Rejection by Worldly Men, Luke 9:57-62.
Luke Chapter 9, is paralleled beginning in Mat 10:1, where Jesus gives much greater instruction to the disciples in preparing them for ministry, which Luke records in his Chapter 10 regarding the sending out of the 70 disciples. Then in Matthew’s Gospel, much of what Luke has already noted about Jesus’ ministry takes place, and in Chapter 14, Matthew tells about the feeding of 5,000, that Luke mentions in vs. 10-17. We will note where the other accounts in Luke’s gospel take place in Matthew’s. Similarly, in Mark’s Gospel, this narrative begins in Mark 6:7, and then the other actions that Luke notes in our chapter, happen later in Mark’s Gospel, as we will note.
In Luke’s Gospel Chapter 9, we begin to see the Galilean phase of Jesus’ ministry come to a close. In this chapter we will see:
1. The sending out of the Twelve, vs. 1-10a.
2. The miraculous feeding of the 5,000, vs 10b-17.
3. The questioning of “who they thought Jesus was,” vs. 18-22.
4. The exhortation to follow Him by “carrying your own cross,” vs. 23-26.
5. The Transfiguration, vs. 27-36.
6. The casting out of another demon, vs. 37-43a.
7. The prediction of His crucifixion, vs. 43b-45.
8. The argument among the apostles as to who was the greatest, vs. 46-50.
9. The rejection by the Samaritans with James’ and John’s request to destroy them, vs. 51-56.
10. The half-hearted requests to follow Jesus, vs. 57-62.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
We begin with: The Ministry through the disciples, Luke 9:1-10a, where Jesus sends out the twelve.
This is the scene where Jesus sends out the 12 Apostles on their own, to witness the Gospel of the Kingdom to the people of Israel. During this time the disciples have been in training, and are being prepared for a larger role in the ministry of Jesus, as they will soon have more responsibility than they ever imagined.
In sending them, Jesus gave them the power to cast out demons and heal the sick with some specific instructions. As noted above, Matthew gives much greater detail about the instructions Jesus gave the twelve in order to prepare them for ministry, than Mark or Luke report. Therefore, our first principle is that much instruction in the Word of God is necessary before one begins his or her ministry in Christ.
Luke 9:1, “And He called the twelve together, and gave them power and authority over all the demons and to heal diseases.”
First, we see Jesus “called together,” SUNKALEO, the “twelve,” DODEKA, after the brief separation of Luke 8:51f. Here we see the number 12 once again, as we noted the 12-year old girl and woman who was hemorrhaging for 12 years at the end of Chapter 8. Luke must have been grouping the 12’s. As we noted, 12 is the number of perfect government or governance, and the 12 Apostles represent the perfect governance for witnessing the Gospel of the Kingdom of God / heaven to the people of Israel at this time. We also know that 11 of the 12 would become part of the 12 Apostles of the Church, with Judas’ removal and Paul’s insertion, to begin and lead the Church in the dispensation of the Church Age.
To prepare these men for this specific journey, Jesus “gave them power and authority,” DUNAMIS, which is, “inherent power, might, ability, and force,” to rule, that Matthew and Mark do not use. It was the Divine ability to accomplish the impossible. Jesus infused them with capabilities they did not have on their own, cf. Luke 4:14, 36; 5:17; 6:19; 8:46.
The second thing Jesus gave them was “authority,” EXOUSIA, which is, “authority, right, or power” to rule. It is the right to carry out the Lord’s mission. As Jesus had the power and authority to do these things by the great Plan of God the Father, so too are these disciples given this power and authority from Jesus/God.
This also would identify these men as being from God, just as Jesus performing miracles showed He was the Son of God. Therefore, it was like a credit card that gave them access to the hearts and minds of the people so they could preach the gospel.
“Although the disciples would experience the power and authority given to them by Jesus, they also would find out that they must live the same life of poverty, rejection, and dependence upon God as Jesus did.” (Complete Biblical Library Commentary – Luke.) Cf. Luke 9:57-62.
The things these disciples would rule “over,” EPI, were “all the demons,” PAS HO DAIMONION, and “diseases,” NOSOS, cf. Luke 4:40; 6:18; 7:21. The result would be that they would “heal,” THERAPEUO, those people, just as Jesus had.
Luke 9:2, “And He sent them out to proclaim the kingdom of God and to perform healing.”
Here, Jesus “sent them out,” APOSTELLO AUTOS. This is where we get the title for the Apostles. We see in vs. 1, Jesus “called” these men to Him, and then “sent them out” to witness. The same occurs for every believer. Jesus first calls us to His Kingdom for salvation and with that we are given a commission as Royal Ambassadors for Christ to witness the gospel of Jesus Christ and the greater truths of His Word.
These men were to “proclaim,” KERUSSO, “the kingdom,” BASILEIA, “of God,” HO THEOS. It means witnessing the gospel of Jesus Christ. They have the authority as the representative KERUX of the king to proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ.
“And to perform healing,” KAI IAOMAI, which is the other word for healing synonymous to THERAPEUO. Some manuscripts read, “heal the sick,” that includes HO ASTHENEO, “the sick, weak, unhealthy, or those in need.” In either case, the healing was for those who were demon possessed or those with various ailments. But more importantly, it means to heal the soul of the unbeliever of the negative effects of sin, by bringing the gospel of Jesus Christ into their lives. This was the power given to them to back up their authority as witnesses for Jesus Christ.
Jesus proclaimed the kingdom of God, but He did so on His own authority as its King. Now, He sent the 12 with His authority to proclaim and His power to back up their proclamation.
Luke 9:3-5, “And He said to them, ‘Take nothing for your journey, neither a staff, nor a bag, nor bread, nor money; and do not even have two tunics apiece. 4Whatever house you enter, stay there until you leave that city. 5And as for those who do not receive you, as you go out from that city, shake the dust off your feet as a testimony against them’.”
As noted above, here Luke records only a brief amount of our Lord’s instructions when sending out the 12, while Matthew includes much more in his Chapter 10:9-15, which Luke records when our Lord sent out the 70 disciples in pairs of two, in Luke’s Chapter 10. Mark 6:7-11, is more similar to Luke’s account, yet Mark says the 12 were sent in pairs in vs. 7.
In Luke 9:3, our Lord instructs them to “taking nothing” with them “for the journey.” He then lists 5 items, (the number of grace), to leave behind; a staff, a bag, bread, money, and an extra tunic. Mark says the exception was to take a staff.
“Staff,” RHABDOS, ῥάβδος, which is a “rod, staff, stick.” It represents a walking stick for a traveler, the shepherds staff for guidance and protection, a rod used to beat grain in harvest, the staff of authority, and a measuring stick. It occurs 12 times in the NT, continuing the analogy of perfect governance. This was a safety item travelers carried to protect themselves.
“Bag,” PERA, πήρα, which is, “a leather bag for provisions, knapsack, or wallet.” It was used for carrying personal belongings, or food and supplies, and a sometimes it was a type of begging bag for collecting funds.
“Bread,” ARTOS, ἄρτος the common word for “bread, loaf of bread, or food in general.”
“Money,” ARGURION, ἀργύριον is, “silver, money, or a piece of silver.” We would say currency to purchase things we need.
“Tunics,” CHITON, χιτών that means, “tunic or inner garment.” This is the inner garment or shirt worn next to the skin. We could even call it “underwear,” as we have today. So they were not to even bring a change of underwear!
All of these things speak to the provisions necessary for life, the logistical grace blessings that God provides us. They all also have analogy for what the Word of God does for us and means to us every day. But, the point here is that Jesus tells them to leave these things behind so that they will have to depend 100% on God to provide for their everyday needs, including defending them from evil. Therefore, this was an object lesson for the disciples to not supply their own resources to meet their daily needs, but instead to trust and rely upon God to provide for their daily needs; just as you and I should be trusting in God and His Word to provide for all of our daily needs.
This is the lesson Jesus intended for them to learn, as later in Luke 22:35, during the Passover Supper, He recalled that they had learned this lesson.
Luke 22:35, “And He said to them, ‘When I sent you out without money belt and bag and sandals, you did not lack anything, did you?’ They said, ‘No, nothing’.”
Right after that in vs. 36, our Lord instructed them to take these things along with them in the future, as He was about to be crucified and people would not be as generous towards them because of their leader’s demise. The hardening of the people’s heart towards God would cause them to need to take along provisions, which too God would provide, only not through the people.
In Luke 9:4, we see the generosity of the people they would witness too, “Whatever house you enter, stay there until you leave that city.” Cf. Mat 10:11. There would be one generous family in each town or city they visited. Jesus did not want them to bounce around from one house to another within the city, because of the optic it would have on them as being beggars or swindlers.
In vs. 5, “And as for those who do not receive you, as you go out from that city, shake the dust off your feet as a testimony against them’.”
“Shake the dust off your feet,” uses the Present, Active, Imperative for a command of the Verb APOTINASSO, ἀποτινάσσω, “shake off.” It is only used here and Acts 28:5, for Paul shaking off a poisonous snake from his hand. In our passage, it is a symbolic use, as a Rabbinic thought that the Jews who traveled through Gentile lands would shake the dust from their feet when they returned to Palestine, as the heathen’s dust was considered a defilement. And here, those who rejected the apostles, who were bringing Christ’s message, were acting like heathens and would be held accountable in the Day of Judgment. Therefore, this was a symbol of the people’s rejection of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, “as a testimony against them,” MATURION, “testimony, witness, proof, or evidence,” EPI AUTOS, “against them,” that if sustained would result in their convicting judgment to the eternal Lake of Fire. Cf. Mat 10:14; Mark 6:11; Acts 13:51; 18:6, using EKTINASSO for “shake off.”
It was also for the Apostles psyche in that they were not to take the rejection personally. As such, the people were not rejecting them but the Gospel of Jesus Christ and therefore God and His Plan for their salvation. Jesus used the image to encourage the 12 to put rejection behind them and to pursue their cause wherever opportunities arose. So, it was an ominous sign to the rejecting people, and an encouraging counsel to the Apostles.
Luke 9:6, “Departing, they began going throughout the villages, preaching the gospel and healing everywhere.”
Here the disciples begin their personal journey’s where they were not accompanying our Lord. They were off on their own “preaching the gospel,” EUANGELIZO, εὐαγγελίζω, “bring or announce good news, proclaim, or preach (the gospel).”
They also were “healing,” THERAPEUO, “everywhere,” PANTACHOU, πανταχοῦ that means, “all places, everywhere.” They were saving souls, while also saving bodies from various ailments.
Luke 9:7-9, “Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was happening; and he was greatly perplexed, because it was said by some that John had risen from the dead, 8and by some that Elijah had appeared, and by others that one of the prophets of old had risen again. 9Herod said, ‘I myself had John beheaded; but who is this man about whom I hear such things?’ And he kept trying to see Him.”
This section is paralleled in Mat 14:1-2; Mark 6:14-16; cf. Mat 16:14.
These verses are added to set up our Lord’s questioning of the disciples upon their return in, vs. 18-20. This is what they were finding and hearing during their missionary journeys. In addition, it is what Herod Antipas was saying too, as the “head” of the people in Galilee. Remember, this Herod was the son of Herod “the Great,” from Luke 1:5. As we have noted, when his father died, 4 B.C., he became a tetrarch. He ruled Galilee and Perea until he was removed from his throne and exiled by Emperor Caligula in 39 A.D. for asserting his right to be called “king.”
Since Herod was ruler over much of the area in which Jesus’ ministry took place, it is not unusual that he would be interested in what was going on throughout his region.
“Perplexed,” is the Verb DIAPOREO, διαπορέω that means, “be greatly perplexed, be at a loss, or to be in doubt.” Only Luke uses this word here and Luke 24:4, for the woman at Jesus’ tomb post-resurrection, Acts 2:12, for the people who heard the Apostles preaching the Gospel at Pentecost in foreign languages, Acts 5:24, for the captain of the temple guard and chief priest hearing the miraculous release of the apostle from jail, Acts 10:17, for Peter’s perplexity regarding his vision of the unclean animals becoming clean to eat.
What Herod and the people were “perplexed over” was first “all the things happening,” which means the teaching, miracles, signs, and wonders Jesus, and now the disciples, were performing. In addition, there were the rumors about Jesus and who He was. Herod had heard that some said Jesus was “John the Baptist who had risen from the dead.” Matthew and Mark tell us that this was Herod’s own view, probably due to his guilt and paranoia for killing John. Others said He was the reincarnation, apparition, or resurrection of Elijah or one of the Old Testament prophets.
“Herod said, ‘I myself had John beheaded; but who is this man about whom I hear such things?’ And he kept trying to see Him.”
“Beheaded,” is the Verb APOKEPHALIZO, ἀποκεφαλίζω that means, “to cut off the head or behead,” that is only used in Mat 14:10; Mark 6:16, 27; and here. The other two synoptic gospels tell about John’s beheading at this point, Mat 14:6-10; Mark 6:17-29, which we have previously read and noted, yet Luke does not go into any detail in his gospel about that situation other than to say he was imprisoned by Herod, Luke 3:20.
The last phrase, “And he (Herod) kept trying to see Him,” sets up the storyline of Jesus’ trials prior to his crucifixion that included a presence before Herod where he mocked and abused Jesus, Luke 23:6-12. Therefore, this desire to “see him,” was prompted only by curiosity or malice, not by faith.
Luke 9:10a, “When the apostles returned, they gave an account to Him of all that they had done.”
This is paralleled in Mark 6:30. Note that they are now described, not as “disciples,” MATHETES, but as “Apostles,” APOSTOLOS. Clearly this refers to the new activities of preaching and healing that the disciples are involved in.
The Apostles then “gave an account,” DIEGEOMAI, διηγέομαι that means, “describe, show or tell, relate fully, or conduct a narration through to the end.” In other words, they gave a detailed report of what they had seen, said, and done in all the places they had visited. We do not know how long they were on this missionary journey, where they visited, or what they did. We do not have any details given to us about their journey, but the Lord, their King and Sender, received a full accounting, just as we will give a full accounting of our lives to Him at the BEMA Seat, 1 Cor 3:10-15.
Outline for Chapter 9:
III. The Ministry of the Son of Man to Men, Luke 4:14-9:50.
D. Activities of His Ministry, Luke 7:1-9:50.
11. Ministry to physical needs; Main topic: The miraculous feeding of the 5,000, Luke 9:10b-17.
This scene is paralleled in Mat 14:15-21; Mark 6:31-44, and John 6:1-14. Matthew and Mark say this occurred right after Jesus learned that His cousin, John the Baptist, had been killed by Herod.
Luke 9:10b, “Taking them with Him, He withdrew by Himself to a city called Bethsaida.”
“Withdrew,” HUPOCHOREŌ, ὑποχωρέω that means, “withdraw or retreat,” which is only used here and Luke 5:16, in the NT. This is another instance of Jesus getting away from the crowds to rest and recharge, Mark 6:31, which demonstrates His humanity that did get tired, hungry, etc. This time, He took the disciples with Him and went to the “city, POLIS, of “Bethsaida,” Βηθσαϊδά.” Bethsaida is mentioned in Mat 11:21; Mark 6:45; 8:22; Luke 9:10; 10:13; John 1:44; 12:21.
It is a city east of the Jordan, in a “desert place,” that is, uncultivated ground used for grazing. This is doubtless to be identified with the village of Bethsaida in Lower Gaulonitis which the Tetrarch Philip raised to the rank of a city, and called Julias, in honor of Julia, the daughter of Caesar Augustus. It lay near the place where the Jordan enters the Sea of Gennesaret.
Three of the Apostles were from Bethsaida including, Philip, Andrew and Peter, John 1:44; 12:21.
John 1:44, “Now Philip was from Bethsaida, of the city of Andrew and Peter.”
Luke 9:11, “But the crowds were aware of this and followed Him; and welcoming them, He began speaking to them about the kingdom of God and curing those who had need of healing.”
This is the “no rest for the weary” passage. Despite Jesus’ desire for privacy and rest, He displayed no irritation, and in grace “welcomed” the people, APODECHOMAI ἀποδέχομαι, “welcome, receive favorably, accept, or to receive with pleasure,” just as the people did for Jesus in Luke 8:40. Only Luke uses this word in his gospel and Acts. Cf. Mark 6:34, Jesus received them with compassion like sheep without a shepherd.
At this time, Jesus evangelized by “speaking to them about the Kingdom of God,” and “curing, IOAMAI, those who had need, CHREIAN, of healing, THERAPEUO,” reminding us of Luke 5:31, “And Jesus answered and said to them, “It is not those who are well who need a physician, but those who are sick.” And Luke 4:43, “But He said to them, “I must preach the kingdom of God to the other cities also, for I was sent for this purpose.”
We too need to use our opportunities to witness the gospel and help others!
In addition, Jesus was also continuing to train the disciples for their future missionary journeys.
Luke 9:12, “Now the day was ending, and the twelve came and said to Him, ‘Send the crowd away, that they may go into the surrounding villages and countryside and find lodging and get something to eat; for here we are in a desolate place’.”
The apostles were exhorting Jesus to send the crowds away to the surrounding areas to find a place to sleep and eat. Here, we have a very interesting word for “lodging.” It is the Verb KATALUO that literally means, “to destroy or break down.” But, here it is used like a slang word for obtaining a place to sleep, (i.e., “let’s break down for the night”). Yet, typically it is used for “destroy,” as this is the word used when Jesus said He would “destroy” the temple and rebuild it in three days, in Matthew and Mark; Luke 21:6. So, with the double meaning, we could say that the disciples where trying to “destroy,” this gathering, even though that was not their intention. It might have been the unintended effect. They were breaking up the body of Christ.
With this is, “get something to eat,” which in the Greek, is HEURISKO, “find,” with EPISITISMOS, ἐπισιτισμός for, “food or provisions.” EPISITISMOS is only used here in the NT, yet, the Septuagint (LXX) uses it specifically of the provisions for a journey, Gen 42:25; 45:21, (reminding us of the principles of vs. 1-10), and for the manna from heaven, “food,” that God provided for the people of Israel wandering in the wilderness, Psa 78:25.
Therefore, we see the tie in with Jesus’ instructions to the apostles in the previous section to trust in God for their provisions, i.e., their logistical grace blessings, vs. 1-10, as he also commanded Israel to do so. Yet, the disciples were not doing so at this time. So, we have an opportunity for learning.
The apostles’ request was based on human rationale for they were “in a desolate place,” EN EREMOS TOPOS. Because the apostles had not learned the lesson as yet, they were looking at the physical environment and situation from a humanistic view point, forgetting who Jesus was and the power of God. They had not learned completely the lesson of trusting in God, faith-resting in Him, to provide 100% of their logistical grace blessings. So, Jesus was about to teach them the principle once again.
Luke 9:13, “But He said to them, “You give them something to eat!” And they said, “We have no more than five loaves and two fish, unless perhaps we go and buy food for all these people”.”
This scene reminds us of 2 Kings 4:42-44, and Elisha’ miracle by the power of God to feed many with only a few provisions, and God’s provisions for the people of Israel wandering in the wilderness, Ex 16; Num 11.
I love Jesus’ response here. It is a command that has a two-fold meaning. First, it means, why are you bothering Me with this detail. I am the Teacher. Do I also have to take care of the logistics? You should be taking care of this issue. This reminds us of the apostles in the early church that had too much responsibility with the teaching and evangelizing aspect of the ministry that they could not tend to the other details, so they established the office of and elected Deacons, Acts 6:1-6.
Acts 6:2-4, “So the twelve summoned the congregation of the disciples and said, “It is not desirable for us to neglect the word of God in order to serve tables. 3Therefore, brethren, select from among you seven men of good reputation, full of the Spirit and of wisdom, whom we may put in charge of this task. 4But we will devote ourselves to prayer and to the ministry of the word”.”
Secondly, Jesus had previously given them “power,” DUNAMIS, and “authority,” EXOUSIA, vs. 1, so now He was challenging their faith to see if they would respond positively and feed the people with the power and authority God had given them. If they could heal the sick and exorcise demons with that power and authority, they certainly would be able to feed these people with it too. But, because this was a different situation, their faith did not transfer to this new situation, as it should have.
Notice Jesus’ discussion with Philip in John 6:5-6, “Therefore Jesus, lifting up His eyes and seeing that a large crowd was coming to Him, said to Philip, “Where are we to buy bread, so that these may eat?” 6This He was saying to test him, for He Himself knew what He was intending to do.”
If God can do the lesser, being infinite and all powerful, He can do the greater too!! If God can work in one situation in your life, or the life of someone else, He can work in your new situation too! Do not limit God to the familiar or previously accomplished. God is new and fresh each morning and in each situation. Trust in Him in every and all situations of your life.
So, Jesus used this situation to test their faith to see if it was transferable to various situations, or if their faith was dependent solely on what they have previously seen and done, which in reality is not true faith but empiricism or rationalism.
This is the apostles’ response to Jesus’ command, “you give them something to eat.” “And they said, “We have no more than five loaves and two fish, unless perhaps we go and buy food for all these people”.”
Here, we see the humanistic view point of the visible, rational, or empirical that is not faith! They were looking at their own resources, “five loaves (PENTE ARTOS) and two fish (DUO ICHTHUS),” and how much money they had to buy the “food,” BROMA, for “all these people,” PAS LAOS. At the same time, they were thinking about the task it would be to purchase that much food and bring it to the people; or could they even buy that much in one place?
John 6:7, “Philip answered Him, “Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, for everyone to receive a little”.”
John 6:8-9, “One of His disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, said to Him, 9‘There is a lad here who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what are these for so many people?’”
They were looking at “all these people,” compared to the “5 loaves, 2 fish, and money in the money box” and rationalizing, “there is no way we have enough or can do this.” AND, they were forgetting about the Power and Authority that they had been given by Jesus/God. They also were forgetting what Jesus could have miraculously done in that situation. They should have approached Him with that viewpoint in faith, rather than in doubt saying to Him, “send these people away, we don’t have enough.” So, there is “faith failure” on several levels, but that is okay, because they were still learning. And Jesus would teach them a great lesson.
Luke 9:14, “(For there were about five thousand men.) And He said to His disciples, “Have them sit down to eat in groups of about fifty each”.”
Jesus is about to demonstrate true faith, power, and authority. He knew how many people were there. It says, “about 5,000 men,” HOSEI PENTAKISCHILIOI ANER. PENTAKISCHILIOI, πεντακισχίλιοι is used only regarding this narrative in Mat 14:21; 16:9; Mark 6:44; 8:19; Luke 9:14; John 6:10.
Mat 14:21 says, “There were about five thousand men who ate, besides women and children.” Therefore, in reality, there were at least fifteen thousand people there; men, women and children.
Jesus then commanded the disciples to have the crowd “sit down,” KATAKLINO, “recline at a table, sit down, etc.,” which only Luke uses in Luke 7:36; 9:14-15; 14:8; 24:30. The last reference being the Passover Supper before our Lord was crucified, which this event occurred near a previous Passover, John 6:4.
Jesus had them sit in “groups,” KLISIA, κλισία that means, “group or company,” that is also only used here in the NT, “of about fifty,” HOSEI PENTEKONTA.
Fifty in the Bible is the number of Jubilee or deliverance. It points to deliverance and rest following on as the result of the perfect consummation of time. The year of Jubilee was the time of a double Sabbath year rest for the nation of Israel, where they would particularly have to rely upon God’s provisions from the previous years, because they could not plant or reap for two years, i.e., the 7th year Sabbath and the following 50th year Jubilee Sabbath. In addition, it also meant that all debts were forgiven, that was a picture of the forgiveness of sin. This is what Jesus wanted the people to be thinking about as He fed them with this Passover meal.
Five is the number of Grace. Ten is the number of Perfect Divine Order. So, 5 x 10 = 50 is the number of God’s Perfect Grace Order / Provision that is emphasized in the Year of Jubilee. And 5,000 is 5 x 10 x 10 x 10, which is a triple emphasis of this fact. And, there were about 100 groups to feed, 10 x 10, a doubling of Divine Perfect Order and Provision was about to be displayed by Jesus.
Luke 9:15, “They did so, and had them all sit down.”
Here, we see obedience to the Word of God by the disciples and crowd. So, we see some faith, as they were probably anticipating Jesus to do something.
Luke 9:16, “Then He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, He blessed them, and broke them, and kept giving them to the disciples to set before the people.”
Luke, typically uses “looking up” ANABLEPO, in regard to the blind receiving their sight, Luke 7:22; 18:41-43, which is a picture of having faith. So, Jesus is demonstrating His faith in the provisions of God the Father, as He looked up to “heaven,” OURANOS.
Then Jesus “blessed them,” EULEGEO that here means to give thanks for something, in this case the food God had provided for the people through these 5 loaves and 2 fish. He said a blessing for the food in faith! We call this “saying grace,” for your food, where we give thanks to God for His provisions.
1 Tim 4:3-5, “… foods which God has created to be gratefully shared in by those who believe and know the truth. 4For everything created by God is good, and nothing is to be rejected if it is received with gratitude; 5for it is sanctified by means of the word of God and prayer.” Cf. Rom 14:6; 1 Cor 10:30f; 1 Thes 5:18.
This is the principle of “saying grace” or “saying a blessing” before you consume food. Jesus demonstrated His faith in God the Father and gave Him thanks for the provisions He provided.
“Broke them,” uses KATAKLAO, κατακλάω that means, “break in pieces, break short or snap off.” It is only used in Mark 6:41 and here for this narrative. This term is an intensified compound of the simple verb KLAO, “break” that Matthew uses for this scene and the term used in the Upper Room Passover Supper, Luke 22:19, which Paul recounts in the Communion Supper ordinances in 1 Cor 11:24. See also Luke 24:30. Therefore, this whole scene was a foreshadowing of the Upper Room Communion Supper on a much grander scale.
Finally, “to set before the people,” uses PARATITHEMI that means, “place beside, place before, set before, put before, give over, entrust, or commend.” It is the word Luke also chose when writing about Jesus’ death upon the Cross when He “committed,” or “set before” the Father His spirit, Luke 23:46.
Luke 23:46, “And Jesus, crying out with a loud voice, said, “Father, into your hands I commit My spirit.” Having said this, He breathed His last.”
Faithfully entrusting His spirit to God the Father upon His death, was shown by faithfully placing the “bread” before the 15,000+. Jesus, as the “Bread of Life,” was demonstrating to the people that He faithfully was giving His body to them upon the Cross to receive their sins and pay for them there.
Here, Jesus demonstrated His faith in God the Father to provide for His peoples’ physical sustenance. Upon the Cross, Jesus demonstrated His faith in God the Father to provide for His peoples’ spiritual sustenance.
Luke 9:17, “And they all ate and were satisfied; and the broken pieces which they had left over were picked up, twelve baskets full.”
This is the great part, “and they all ate and were satisfied.” In analogy they all believe in God’s provisions, physically and spiritually, and were satisfied, CHORTAZO, χορτάζω that means, “satisfied, satiated hunger, filled,” which also speaks to the beatitude of Luke 6:21, “Blessed are you who hunger now, for you shall be satisfied.” Although this miracle served as a tremendous example to the disciples of faith and dependence upon God, the final emphasis is upon the abundance of provision to the people.
And, having “left overs,” is the Verb PERISSEUO, περισσεύω that means, “to be more than enough, to have an abundance of, to be superior, and to excel in.” Therefore, there was more than enough; there was an abundance of God’s provision that satisfied the people, just as the Cross of Jesus Christ is all sufficient for the payment of the penalty of the sins of the entire world for our personal salvation.
Notice the collection of the left overs. There were “12 baskets,” DODEKA KOPHINOS, Mat 14:20; Mark 6:43; 8:19; John 6:12-13. So, we see the number 12 once again that speaks to God’s perfect governance that means perfect provision and Divine administration for the people.
Outline for Chapter 9:
III. The Ministry of the Son of Man to Men, Luke 4:14-9:50.
D. Activities of His Ministry, Luke 7:1-9:50.
12. Ministry of prediction, Luke 9:18-50.
Topics of Chapter 9:
3. The questioning of “who they thought Jesus was,” vs. 18-22.
Luke 9:18-22, “And it happened that while He was praying alone, the disciples were with Him, and He questioned them, saying, “Who do the people say that I am?” 19They answered and said, “John the Baptist, and others say Elijah; but others, that one of the prophets of old has risen again.” 20And He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” And Peter answered and said, “The Christ of God.” 21But He warned them and instructed them not to tell this to anyone, 22saying, “The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed and be raised up on the third day”.”
This questioning by our Lord was after the disciples had returned from their first missionary journey and correlates back to vs 7-9, regarding Herod’s perplexity about who Jesus was. This is paralleled in Mat 16:13-16, 20-21; Mark 8:27-31.
Both Matthew and Mark say that this scene occurred in the north in Caesarea Philippi, which was situated near the base of Mount Hermon.
At this time Jesus was “praying alone,” PROSEUCHOMAI, προσεύχομαι with KATA MONOS meaning, “in private or apart by one’s self.” Once again, we see the importance of private time for prayer to God.
Then, when He was finished with His prayers, He approached the disciples and asked them, “Who do the crowds say that I am?” Interestingly, this also sets up our Lord’s proclamations of His seven “I am” statements that John records in his gospel.
Each writer of the Gospels had the same intention that John did in writing his, which he declares towards the completion, John 20:30-31, “Therefore many other signs Jesus also performed in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; 31but these have been written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name.”
1) “I AM the Bread of Life,” John 6:35, 48. Noted after feeding the 5,000, (15,000+). Jesus made His heavenly origins known, (the bread from heaven from My Father, vs. 32-33) and the fact that He alone supplies the spiritual needs of His hearers.
2) “I AM the Light of the World,” John 8:12; 9:5. Jesus overcame sin (darkness) for the entire world. His Cross is all sufficient for salvation for those who believe in Him.
3) “I AM the Door,” John 10:7-9. Jesus is the entrance for the sheep to enter the pen, i.e., the believer to enter into heaven.
4) “I AM the Good Shepherd,” John 10:11, 14. Jesus is the one who protects, leads, guides, and nourishes the sheep/believers, cf. Psa 23. He also “laid down His life” for the sheep, vs. 15, 17-18.
5) “I AM the Resurrection and the Life,” John 11:25. Jesus provides the eternal resurrection life to those who believe in Him. Jesus is not simply stating that He imparts resurrection and life, but that He Himself is resurrection and life.
6) “I AM the Way and the Truth and the Life,” John 14:6. Jesus is declaring three distinct things about Himself:
1. “I AM the Way,” Jesus is the way/means of salvation that leads to the Father and His House. It is through His death that God and sinners are reconciled.
2. “I AM the Truth,” As “The Word,” Jesus is utter veracity and reliability, John 1:1, 14. He is the supreme revelation of God; God’s gracious self-disclosure, His “Word,” made flesh.
3. “I AM the Life,” He is the life and the source of life to others, John 3:16.
These three represent an exclusive position for Jesus. He is the one way to God, He is thoroughly reliable, and He stands in a relation to truth such as no one else does.
7) “I AM the True Vine,” John 15:1, 5. Jesus is the obedient Son of God through whose sacrifice and mission God’s plan of salvation would be fulfilled, and through whom all who believe will grow and produce Divine Good, “the Fruit of the Spirit.” Jesus, by His exaltation in death and resurrection, will be removed tangibly from the world. We, the disciples, are sent into the world, as was Jesus, to carry on the task in His “absence.”
Finally, all of the “I AM” sayings prove the Deity of Jesus the Christ. And when Jesus uttered these solemn words, He sought to convey the astounding fact of His Divine nature, as did the Apostle John when he recorded these life-giving words.
Here, we have a short list of who people thought and said Jesus was, “John the Baptist, Elijah, or one of the prophets of old has risen again.” Mat 16:14, adds “Jeremiah.” Note that all of these men were dead at this time and so the people thought that Jesus was a resurrected being, “had risen again,” ANISTEMI.
Other than Samuel, we have no record of a prophet being resurrected in the OT, and even Samuel was not a resurrection but a supernatural manifestation, 1 Sam 28.
In addition, John 6:14-15, tells us that many people knew who Jesus was, “Therefore when the people saw the sign which He had performed, they said, “This is truly the Prophet who is to come into the world.” 15So Jesus, perceiving that they were intending to come and take Him by force to make Him king, withdrew again to the mountain by Himself alone.”
This is another reason why Jesus tells them in vs. 21, to tell no one who He is.
Then Jesus asks them, “Who do you say I am?” Peter, as usual, is the first to answer and states, “The Christ of God,” HO CHRISTOS HO THEOS. Mark simply states, “You are the Christ,” and Matthew in Mat 16:16 adds, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”
Remember, CHRISTOS, Χριστός means, “Anointed One,” who is also the Messiah. “Of God,” means God sent Him and is part of Him. As Mark states also that Jesus is God’s Son.
That was the correct answer. And as a result, Jesus then in Mat 16:17, “blessed Peter,” and made the great statement of “building His Church on the Rock.”
Mat 16:17-20, “And Jesus said to him, “Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but My Father who is in heaven. 18I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. 19I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven.” 20Then He warned the disciples that they should tell no one that He was the Christ.”
This is that controversial passage regarding Apostolic succession, which the Roman Catholic Church proclaims. But, as we have noted before, there are two terms for “rock” here that differentiate Peter from Jesus. PETROS, “a stone, or piece of rock from a larger rock,” was used for Peter, and PETRA, “a large rock, mass of rock, rock ledge or rock cliff,” for Jesus. Jesus was speaking of Himself and would build His church upon Himself, not Peter. Nevertheless, Peter had a significant role in establishing the Church, but Jesus is “Cornerstone,” The PETRA upon which It would be built, cf. Mat 7:24; Luke 6:48.
Maybe to make this point, we have in Matthew’s and Mark’s account, right after Jesus’ question to the disciples and Peter’s response, our Lord rebukes Peter where Jesus says to Him, “Get behind Me, Satan,” Mat 16:23; Mark 8:33.
Mark 8:33, “But turning around and seeing His disciples, He rebuked Peter and said, “Get behind Me, Satan; for you are not setting your mind on God’s interests, but man’s”.”
Then our Lord “warns,” EPITIMAO, “warn or strictly admonished,” the disciples to not tell anyone that He is the Christ at this time. This was a “command or instruction,” by our Lord, PARANGELLO, παραγγέλλω that means, “transmit, give orders, command, or instruct.” The reason for this is given in the next verse, which we have previously noted as the reason why Jesus told many not to tell others about Him. In addition, we also have John 16:14-15, where some would revolt against Rome and try to establish Jesus as King of Israel.
Our Lord prophesied about His suffering, death, and resurrection. This is the first time in Luke’s Gospel that Jesus gave explicit details about His death and suffering.
Luke 9:22, “Saying, “The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed and be raised up on the third day”.”
Here, Jesus calls Himself the “Son of Man” As also noted in Mark 8:31, which is Luke’s familiar term that also identified Him as the Messiah, cf. Mat 16:21.
Mat 16:21, “From that time Jesus began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day.”
Mark 8:31, “And He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and the chief priests and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.”
“Suffer,” is the Verb PASCHO πάσχω that means, “experience suffering, endure, or undergo punishment.” As you know, Jesus did not receive any punishment that He deserved, but took on the punishment we all deserve. This is undeserved suffering and punishment. As such, He suffered our punishment for our benefit, as He took on the sins of the entire world and paid the penalty for our sins. That was the final “suffering” Jesus would endure, but leading up to that point, He would endure many other sorrows and difficulties; some of which He mentions here.
“Rejected” is the Verb APODOKIMAZO, ἀποδοκιμάζω “reject, declare useless, or to disapprove.” Other than Heb 12:17, each time this word is used in the NT it refers to Jesus being rejected, many times as the “Corner Stone.” Cf. Mat 21:42; Mark 8:31; 12:10; Luke 17:25; 20:17; 1 Peter 2:4, 7.
Here, Jesus’ rejection is by three groups:
1. “Elders,” PRESBUTEROS, “leaders of the synagogues, community leaders.”
2. “Chief priests,” ARCHIEREUS, “Sadducean aristocracy, i.e., high priests that were part of the Pharisees and Sanhedrin. This may be a reference to both Caiaphas and Annas his father-in-Law who were both high priests at separate times who were part of Jesus’ trials. The plural used here also denotes members of the Sanhedrin who belonged to high priestly families. Besides the ruling high priest, the group included ex-high priests whose number varied with the frequent changes of appointments made by the Roman authorities.
3. “Scribes,” GRAMMATEUS, “the lawyers of the Jewish church, teachers of the Law that also were interchanged with the Sadducees, as we have noted.”
These were the three groups of the Sanhedrin, the highest Jewish legal authority during the Roman period. As such, the three leading groups of the Jewish religious movement are noted as the rejecters and hands by which He would suffer. Cf. Mat 26:57-59; Mark 10:33; John 18:13, 24.
Mark 10:33, “Saying, “Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes; and they will condemn Him to death and will hand Him over to the Gentiles”.”
John 18:13, “And led Him to Annas first; for he was father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was high priest that year.”
Mat 26:57, “Those who had seized Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas, the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together.”
Jesus’ suffering would end with His death upon the Cross, “and be killed,” APOKTEINO, ἀποκτείνω, “kill and deprive of spiritual life.” Jesus received the latter first.
The suffering ended with the Cross and led to His triumph, as He would, “be raised up on the third day,” EGEIRO TRITOS HEMERA. This is the prophecy of His resurrection.
Therefore, Jesus knew He had to suffer and be rejected, He knew He would die, but He also knew He would be raised to life on the third day!
Matthew and Mark, Mat 16:22, Mark 8:32, 33, mention Peter’s rebuke of Jesus, but Luke concentrates only on what Jesus would soon be facing. Thus, Luke associates the suffering Jesus must face, vs. 22, with the suffering involved in being His follower, vs. 23-26, which will be our next topic.
Outline for Chapter 9:
III. The Ministry of the Son of Man to Men, Luke 4:14-9:50.
D. Activities of His Ministry, Luke 7:1-9:50.
12. Ministry of prediction, Luke 9:18-50.
Topics of Chapter 9:
4. The exhortation to follow Jesus by “carrying your own cross,” vs. 23-26. This is paralleled in Mat 16:24-27; Mark 8:34-38.
Luke 9:23-26, “And He was saying to them all, “If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself, and take up his cross daily and follow Me. 24For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake, he is the one who will save it. 25For what is a man profited if he gains the whole world, and loses or forfeits himself? 26For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when He comes in His glory, and the glory of the Father and of the holy angels”.”
Matthew also uses the analogy of “taking up your own cross,” in Mat 10:38-39, in the context of loving Jesus more than your family members, vs. 32-39, as does Luke in Luke 14:26-27.
Mat 10:38-39, “And he who does not take his cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me. 39He who has found his life will lose it, and he who has lost his life for My sake will find it.”
In these passages Jesus teaches the disciples that following Him as their Savior has a requirement, a reason, and a reward.
1. The Requirement:
When Luke states “He said to them all,” it may be just the apostles, as Mat 16:24 notes, or it could have been to a larger crowd, as noted in Mark 8:34. Matthew’s first use in Mat 10:38-39, and Luke’s second use in Luke 14:26-27 is to a larger crowd. Nevertheless, it is a principle for all believers.
“If anyone wishes,” uses the Verb THELO that means, “To wish to have, desire, to purpose to do, or to be willing,” in the Customary Present, Active, Indicative for ongoing action performed by the believer. This is coupled with the Present, Middle, Infinitive of purpose that speaks to the ongoing action to follow Jesus and looks ahead to the anticipated result of doing so.
This is also a first class “if,” statement, using the Conjunction EI that means, “if and it is true.” In other words, “if and we do desire to follow Jesus.” The desire is the protasis. What follows is the apodosis or “then” statement, for example, “then we have to do something.” In this case the apodosis is threefold, “he must deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow Me.”
First, we must “deny ourselves,” that uses the Aorist, Deponent Middle, Imperative of the Verb APARNEOMAI, ἀπαρνέομαι that means, “deny, disown, repudiate, or utterly reject.” With the Imperative Mood, this is the first mandate by our Lord to be a follower of Him. This word is used 13 times in the NT, and only in the Gospels for three subjects: this one, the denial of Jesus, and the discussion between Peter and Jesus about Peter’s denial of Jesus, which Peter refuted, that became the object lesson of the second context, Mat 26:34-35, 75; Mark 14:30-31, 72; Luke 22:34, 61; John 13:38.
The number thirteen in the Bible means rebellion, apostasy, defection, corruption, disintegration, revolution, or some similar idea. You see, this is what we are in the flesh, in relationship to God and Jesus Christ. Therefore, to be a follower of Jesus we have to “deny, disown, repudiate, or utterly reject” these instincts emanating from our Old Sin Nature, (OSN). The OSN / flesh is the reason we do, not follow Jesus; therefore, to follow Him, we must not allow our OSN to rule our soul in self-willed desires to do as we please.
Instead, we must act in a wholly selfless manner and give up our self to Christ, that is, deny our desires and wills, and accept and obey the desires and the will of God and Jesus as noted next. Therefore, it means saying no to what we want and saying yes to what He wants.
The second mandate is “let him take up,” the Aorist, Active, Imperative of the Verb AIRO, αἴρω that means, “raise, lift up, take up, pick up, bear away, carry off.” The thing we are to “take up” is “his cross,” AUTOS STAUROS, which is “our own personal cross.” This intensifies this principle of denial.
Crucifixion is one of the most awful and embarrassing ways to die. The Romans designed the whole process of crucifixion, (from beginning to end), to heighten pain and to maximize shame. Victims were cruelly ridiculed during scourging, stripped naked, made to carry their own cross, suspended high enough for a passerby to see, hung beneath a sign declaring their crimes, being taunted, and then left to rot after death.
So, this analogy of “taking up your own cross,” is the analogy of a condemned criminal being forced to carry one bar of his cross on “a one-way journey” to the place of execution. He could not turn back and he would not return. This is the ultimate expression of self-denial. Just as Jesus willingly carried His own cross of self-denial, so too are we who desire to be His disciples are to carry our own cross. We must willingly take up our cross.
This means that just as Jesus had a plan for His life given to Him by God the Father, so does the believer in Christ. Therefore, we need to learn and apply God’s plan to our life, whatever that may be, given the spiritual gift, ministry, and effect God has for us, 1 Cor 12:4-6. We must willingly live inside of God’s power system to live the unique spiritual life of the Church Age.
For the follower of Jesus, this is not a one-time event. In this mandate, we are to do this, “daily,” KATA HEMERA. The Preposition KATA with HEMERA, “daily,” expresses the goal we are to have. It is our daily goal to take up our cross, (i.e., to walk in God’s Plan and will for our lives daily). Therefore, every morning we wake up to die to self and the world so we can live for Jesus.
Paul reflected this attitude in 1 Cor 15:31, “I affirm, brethren, by the boasting in you which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily.”
Gal 2:20, “I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself up for me.”
Gal 5:24, “Now those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires.”
Gal 6:14, “But may it never be that I would boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world.”
Given that the figure of the “cross” is used, the Roman execution apparatus, this self-denial must include a willingness to die for Christ too.
The third mandate is to “follow Me,” the Present, Active, Imperative of the Verb AKOLUTHEO with the Pronoun MOI. AKOLOUTHEO, ἀκολουθέω means, “follow, accompany, or to cleave steadfastly to one.”
The person who denies self and takes up their cross is following Jesus because they are going down the same path as Jesus. To do so, we must be consistent in our intake and application of Bible Doctrine while filled with God the Holy Spirit, the two factors of the equation to live the unique spiritual life of the Church Age.
Do not let Facebook or Twitter define your “following of Jesus.” To follow Him you must deny self and get to know Jesus personally through your study and application of His Word that could lead to suffering and potentially death.
Therefore, we are to, 1) deny our self-willed OSN, 2) live inside of God’s Plan for our lives, 3) by learning and applying God’s Word, (i.e., the mind of Jesus Christ), through the power of the filling of the Holy Spirit.
Examples of how to abide in these mandates are emphasized in the next three verses.
2. The Reason:
Luke 9:24, “For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake, he is the one who will save it.” This is also noted in Mat 10:39; Luke 17:33; John 12:25.
In this passage we have two more “if” statements.
The first, is linked with, “wishes” that is in the Present, Active, Subjunctive of THELO, where the Subjunctive is linked with the conditional particle EAN in the Greek for a Third Class “if” statement. It is used for an event described that can and will occur, but whose occurrence cannot yet be assumed with certainty. So we say, maybe they will, and maybe they will not follow Him. In the Greek, it is HOS EAN that means “whoever,” as the “if” statement. The Protasis of this “if” statement is “wishes to save his life,” THELO SOZO PSUECHE, the Apodosis, (then statement) is, “will lose it,” APOLLUMI that also means, “kill or destroy,” in the Future, Active, Subjunctive.
In other words, if we want to hold on to our fleshly / earthly life led by our OSN, then we will lose the new spiritual life, the new resurrection life, God has planned for us. In essence, we would be destroying that new life in Christ.
The second “if” statement is led by the Contrasting Conjunction DE, “but,” to show that this is a different way of thinking than just mentioned. The “if,” is once again a third class if, using HOS EAN in the Protasis with “loses his life for My sake,” APOLLUMI AUTOS HO PSUECH EGO HENEKA. APOLLUMI here is in the Aorist, Active, Subjunctive for the condition. “For My sake” is our motivation to live the new spiritual life God has for us because we love Jesus.
The Apodosis, “then statement,” is “he is the one who will save it,” HOUTOS SOZO AUTOS, where SOZO is in the Future, Active, Indicative.
In other words, if we deny self / our OSN and live inside of God’s plan for our lives daily by taking in and applying God’s Word, we have lost this earthly / fleshly life and are now living our new life in Christ.
Therefore, you will lose your life if you try to save it, but you can have eternal life by “losing” your life to Christ. The person who tries to selfishly secure for himself pleasure, wealth, and happiness in this life is actually doomed to failure. He commits spiritual suicide, as the next verse tells us. Yet, as William Barclay (Daily Study Bible, Luke, p. 121) puts it, “The Christian must realize that he is given life, not to keep for himself but to spend for others; not to husband its flame but to burn it out for Christ and for men.” When he does, he will gain true life in Christ.
Luke 9:25, “For what is a man profited if he gains the whole world, and loses or forfeits himself?”
This is the reasoning behind these statements. “Profit,” is the Present, Passive, Indicative of the Verb OPHELEO that means, “to be of help, aid, or benefit.” Or, we could say of what value or gain is it.
“Gains the whole world,” is the Aorist, Active, Participle of the Verb KERDAINO, κερδαίνω that means, “to gain, acquire, make a profit, win, or gain over,” with HOLOS KOSMOS. It means to have all the power, riches, wealth, prestige, etc. of this world.
Then we have, “loses or forfeits himself?” APOLLUMI E ZEMIOO HEAUTOU. ZEMIOO, ζημιόω is a verb that means, “injure, to damage, or to suffer loss.” It is only used six times, (the number of man), in the NT; for this narrative in the synoptic gospels, Mat 16:26; Mark 8:36, and here, plus in 1 Cor 3:15; 2 Cor 7:9; Phil 3:8.
1 Cor 3:15, “If any man’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire.”
2 Cor 7:9, “I now rejoice, not that you were made sorrowful, but that you were made sorrowful to the point of repentance; for you were made sorrowful according to the will of God, so that you might not suffer loss in anything through us.”
Phil 3:8, “More than that, I count all things to be loss in view of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them but rubbish so that I may gain Christ.”
In Mat 16:26, instead of saying, “loses or forfeits himself,” Matthew says, “forfeits his soul?” and adds, “Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul?”, as does Mark in Mark 8:37.
In other words, you could have all the riches, wealth, power, and prestige of this world but what good is that going to do for you when you are living for all of eternity in Hell. You cannot buy your way out of hell, or use your currency or clout in hell. There is only loss and suffering. That is why we need to accept Jesus as our Savior and follow Him in this life, so that in the next life we are blessed.
3. The Reward:
Luke 9:26, “For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when He comes in His glory, and the glory of the Father and of the holy angels.” This is also noted in Mat 10:33; Luke 12:9.
Jesus continues to warn and reinforce the element of loyalty from vs. 23. Here, He uses another third class “if,” for maybe you are and maybe you are not, once again with HOS EAN in the Protasis with the Aorist, Passive, Conjunction of EPAISCHUNOMAI, ἐπαισχύνομαι that means, “be ashamed (of), or feel shame for.” It has the idea “to experience or feel shame or disgrace because of some particular event or activity.” Interestingly, this shame also points back to vs. 23, and the Cross of Jesus Christ, the most shameful death imaginable in Jesus’ day, as we noted above.
This means we are embarrassed to be identified with our Lord Jesus Christ in the presence of others, which is tantamount to denying Him. Here, we have two objects of being ashamed of, yet they are one and the same, “Me and My Words,” EGO KAI HO EMOS LOGOS. Here, Jesus equates His Word to be on the same level as Himself. Therefore, it is one thing to be embarrassed to admit to others that you are a believer in Jesus Christ, and another to be embarrassed to admit you study the Bible. But, they both go even further, in that to be ashamed of Jesus and His Word means you have no relationship with either. As we noted above in vs. 23, Peter is an example of being “ashamed” of Jesus, when he denied Him three times, Mat 26:34-35, 69-75; Mark 14:66-72; Luke 22:55-62; John 18:16-18, 25-27. In addition, to refuse to partake in Christ’s suffering and selflessness is also to reject / be ashamed of Him as Master, (i.e., not taking up your cross).
Jesus and the Bible, (His Words), are one and the same. Therefore, to be followers of Jesus, we need to learn and apply His Word. To be ashamed of Jesus, we do not learn and we do not apply His Word to our lives. If we are ashamed of Jesus and His Word it has eternal consequences.
In speaking to believers, Paul states in Rom 6:21, that the believer should be ashamed of their old way of living in sin and Satan’s cosmic system and not go back to his old ways of being led by the OSN, “Therefore what benefit were you then deriving from the things of which you are now ashamed? For the outcome of those things is death.”
Mark adds after, “ashamed of Me and My words,” in Mark 8:38, “in this adulterous and sinful generation.” This puts a greater stamp on those who are ashamed of Jesus. They are “adulterous” meaning they follow other gods, mostly the god of this world, Satan and His cosmic system and the “god of self,” their own OSN as noted by saying “sinful.” Mark also alludes to the present “generation” of Jesus’ day, but this does not limit this warning to only that era. It indicates that the generation of Jesus’ day is an example of what not to be like, as they rejected Him as their Savior / Messiah / King.
The Apodosis, (“then” statement), tells us of the consequence. “The Son of Man,” HIUOS ANTHROPOS, “will be ashamed of,” the Future, Passive, Indicative of EPAISCHUNOMAI, “of him,” HOUTOS. If we have been embarrassed to admit our relationship with Jesus and His Word, (denied our relationship with Him), and/or have no relationship with either, Jesus will deny that person.
Jesus then gives a time frame when His embarrassment of the unbeliever and reversionistic believer will take place, “when He comes in His glory, and the glory of the Father and of the holy angels.” This is the Crown after His Cross. Although Jesus was traveling down a road of suffering and death, He proclaims here that one day He will return with “authority, glory, and sovereign power,” Dan 7:14, given to Him by the Ancient of Days: God!
This is His Second Coming that begins with the Rapture of the Church and culminates at the end of the Millennial Reign. At this time, Jesus will reward the positive believer and deny reward from the reversionistic believer, as well as deny the unbeliever eternal life and entrance into Heaven.
Matthew adds at the end, Mat 16:27, “… and WILL THEN REPAY EVERY MAN ACCORDING TO HIS DEEDS.” This is taken from the principle of Psa 62:12; Prov 24:12 and is also noted in Rom 2:6; 14:12; 1 Cor 3:13; 2 Cor 5:10; Eph 6:8; Rev 2:23; 20:12; 22:12. Therefore, when the Lord returns in power, vindicated in the end, He will reject those who have rejected Him.
Psa 62:12, “And lovingkindness is Yours, O Lord, for You recompense a man according to his work.”
Prov 24:12, “If you say, ‘See, we did not know this,’ does He not consider it who weighs the hearts? And does He not know it who keeps your soul? And will He not render to man according to his work?”
This shame will come to the reversionistic believer at the BEMA seat of Jesus Christ, 1 Cor 3:10-15; 2 Cor 5:10, Rev 2:23, when the believer’s works or deeds are judged for reward or lose of reward, cf. 1 John 2:28.
1 John 2:28-29, “Now, little children, abide in Him, so that when He appears, we may have confidence and not shrink away from Him in shame at His coming. 29If you know that He is righteous, you know that everyone also who practices righteousness is born of Him.”
This shame will come to the unbeliever at the Great White Throne judgment by our Lord Jesus Christ in Rev 20:12, when their works or deeds are judged to show that they were not sufficient for entrance into eternal life and heaven, and that they denied the only way, which is the person and work of Jesus Christ, as stated in His Word. Because their names were blotted out of the Book of Life, due to their unbelief in Jesus, they will be cast into the Lake of Fire, after the evaluation of their deeds shows them wanting. Those who have denied Jesus will at that time hear Him utter the devastating word, “Depart from me.”
The apocryphal book 2 Baruch 51:15f. states, “For what then have men lost their life, and for what have those who were on the earth exchanged their soul? For then they chose not for themselves this time, which, beyond the reach of anguish, could not pass away; but they chose for themselves that time, whose issues are full of lamentations and evils, and they denied the world which ages not those who come to it, and they rejected the time of glory.”
Therefore, like Paul, the unbeliever should believe in Jesus as their Savior / Messiah / King, and the believer should not be ashamed of Jesus in this life with the result of blessings and rewards in the eternal state.
Rom 1:16, “For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.”
2 Tim 1:8, “Therefore do not be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord or of me His prisoner, but join with me in suffering for the gospel according to the power of God.”
2 Tim 1:12, “For this reason I also suffer these things, but I am not ashamed; for I know whom I have believed and I am convinced that He is able to guard what I have entrusted to Him until that day.”
Rev 22:12, “Behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to render to every man according to what he has done.”
Outline for Chapter 9:
III. The Ministry of the Son of Man to Men, Luke 4:14-9:50.
D. Activities of His Ministry, Luke 7:1-9:50.
12. Ministry of prediction, Luke 9:18-50.
Topics of Chapter 9:
5. The Transfiguration, vs. 27-36. This is parallel in Mat 16:28-17:9; Mark 9:1-9. Since Herod and people were confused about who Jesus was, God settles the matter in this scene.
Luke 9:27, ““But I say to you truthfully, there are some of those standing here who will not taste death until they see the kingdom of God”.”
This is a prophecy by our Lord of an event that would occur eight days later at the Transfiguration, vs. 28-36. Many see the Transfiguration as the fulfillment of this prophecy, but there are two other interpretations that some hold: 1) Jesus was pointing to His resurrection and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost with the subsequent growth of the Church (cf. the book of Acts); 2) Jesus was speaking of the destruction of Jerusalem that took place in A.D. 70. Neither of these interpretations fit the full context of the following passages, especially looking at it from the Greek language.
Jesus made this statement in front of all the disciples, and potentially the larger crowd, yet He tells them that only “some of those standing here,” will have this blessing.
“Who will not taste death,” uses a double negative in the Greek OUK and ME for intensification meaning, “absolutely not.” We might say, “There is no shadow of a doubt,” that this will happen.
The event is first, “tasting death,” which uses the Aorist, Middle Deponent, Subjunctive of the Verb GEUO, “taste, eat, enjoy, or experience,” with THANATOS, “death.” “Taste,” is the poetic way of saying this, “experience,” is technically what it means. Jesus, tasted death for all of mankind so that they all could see the glory and kingdom of God, Heb 2:9.
Heb 2:9, “But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, so that by the grace of God He might taste death for everyone.”
And here, these men would not taste death, “until they see the kingdom of God,” HEOS EIDON HO BASILEIA HO THEOS.
Matthew states in Mat 16:28, “…until they see the Son of Man coming in His kingdom.”
Mark states in Mark 9:1, “… until they see the kingdom of God after it has come with power.”
Both of those accounts make it seem more like Jesus was referring to end times prophecies. Yet, it is the scene that follows next, which is the fulfillment of this prophecy.
Luke 9:28, “Some eight days after these sayings, He took along Peter and John and James, and went up on the mountain to pray.”
Here we see the “inner circle” of disciples once again, Peter, John, and James, that Jesus brought with Him, cf. Luke 8:51. These are the “some of those,” from the prophecy in vs. 27. Peter would later write about this event in 2 Peter 1:16-18.
Jesus brought these three with Him as He retreated once more for rest, recharging, and intimate relationship with the Father, as He entered into prayer to God the Father. We have noted those principles previously, but again we should seclude ourselves from time to time when we enter into prayer. This gives us a time of privacy and intimacy with the Lord.
This happened 8 days after Jesus made the prophecy. The reason this number is given is to tie it back to vs. 27, and Jesus’ prophecy. In addition, the number eight in the Bible is the number of resurrection, regeneration, and renewal; the beginning of a new order or era. This typifies what Jesus was about to show these men. He is going to show them the bodies of resurrected beings in the Kingdom of God. Remember also that Jesus was resurrected on the eighth day.
Tradition says this occurred on Mount Tabor, but more likely it occurred on Mount Meron which is northwest of the Sea of Galilee.
Luke 9:29, “And while He was praying, the appearance of His face became different, and His clothing became white and gleaming.”
Luke describes the “appearance,” the Noun EIDON, “appearance, form, sight, kind,” of Jesus’ “face,” PROSOPON that changed / “became different,” “HETEROS, “another,” “while He was praying.”
In addition, “His clothing became white and gleaming,” “White,” is the Adjective, LEUKOS, “white, brilliant, shinning.” “Gleaming,” is the Verb EXASTRAPTO, ἐξαστράπτω in the Present, Active, Participle, Nominative that means, “flash, gleam like lightning, radiate, or glisten.” It is only used here in the NT, a hapaxlegomena.
Matthews states in Mat 17:2, “And He was transfigured before them; and His face shone like the sun, and His garments became as white (LEUKOS) as light (PHOS).”
Mark states in Mark 9:2b-3, … And He was transfigured before them; 3and His garments became radiant (STILBO, “to shine, be radiant, glisten,” which is only used here in the NT) and exceedingly white (LIAN LEUKOS), as no launderer on earth can whiten them.”
This is an image of the resurrection body Jesus will have in the eternal state as well as all believers.
Luke 9:30, “And behold, two men were talking with Him; and they were Moses and Elijah.”
All three Gospel accounts say that He spoke with these two prophets of old. These two are considered the greatest profits in all of the OT. In addition, traditionally they represent “the Law and the Prophets.” In this sense, together they point toward the culmination of all that the OT prophecies regarding humankind’s restoration to fellowship with God through Jesus, Rev 19:10. As such, Jesus is the fulfillment of the Law and the Prophets. In addition, these are the two witnesses that are found in Rev 11:3-12. They are Jews who are going to be a part of the Second Advent Picture.
We also see, that at Sinai, Moses’ face shone, Ex 34:30; “glory of his face,” in 2 Cor 3:7. Moses is not only representative of the Law, but he was considered a prophet too, Deut 18:15, 18, a type of Christ.
Elijah, HELIAS, is not only representative of the Prophets, but Mal 4:5 tells us Elijah is the forerunner of the Messiah. Further, Elijah did not die, but was taken directly to heaven, i.e., he was raptured, 2 Kings 2:9-11. So, he represents the Rapture of the Church when they will receive their resurrection bodies. Liefeld states, “Moses is a typological figure who reminds us of the past (the Exodus), Moses being a predecessor for the Messiah, while Elijah is an eschatological figure pointing to the future as a precursor of the Messiah.” (Expositors Bible Commentary).
Finally, both men had unique departures from this world. Moses was buried by God, though no one knows where, Deut 34:6; cf. Jude 9, and as mentioned above, Elijah, was caught up to heaven in a whirlwind, 2 Kings 2:11.
Luke 9:31, “Who, appearing in glory, were speaking of His departure which He was about to accomplish at Jerusalem.”
Both Moses and Elijah were also in an interim resurrection body as they “appeared in glory,” that uses DOXA, that can mean, “Glory, splendor, radiance, etc.” Only Luke mentions what they were speaking about; Jesus’ death upon the Cross, cf. vs. 22. Interestingly, “departure,” is the Greek Noun EXODOS that reminds us of Moses’ career as a prophet and leader. In the Greek, EXODOS can mean, “an exit, departure, or death.” The use of the word for death is unusual, and it provides the passage with Exodus typology. The Exodus had delivered Israel from bondage. Jesus by His “exodus” would deliver His people from bondage to sin. So, the play on words of exodus and death are in view.
As such, in Elijah, we see the Rapture exit, and in Moses we see the exodus that culminated in his death just after seeing the Promised Land, yet before the people entered into it, Duet 34:1-8. The Promised Land is a type of the Kingdom of God.
Luke 9:32, “Now Peter and his companions had been overcome with sleep; but when they were fully awake, they saw His glory and the two men standing with Him.”
This most likely occurred at night, as only Luke mentions that the three disciples were, “overcome with sleep,” BAREO, “weighed down, oppressed,” and HUPNOS, “sleep or slumber,” and they did not come down from the mountain until “the next day,” vs. 37. This prefigures the circumstances of the disciples in the Garden of Gethsemane in Jerusalem the night before Jesus would suffer death upon the Cross, cf. Mat 26:43; Mark 14:40; Luke 22:45.
“Were fully awake,” is the Verb DIAGREGOREO διαγρηγορέω that means, “fully awake, or stay awake,” and is only used here in the NT. Therefore, it was while they were “totally awake” that they saw Christ’s glory. The testimony of their experience is emphasized by the use of this strong verb for “completely awake.” In other words, this was not a dream or some vision. They literally saw “His glory,” AUTOS DOXA, as prophesied in vs. 27, along with the glorious bodies of Moses and Elijah.
Luke 9:33, “And as these were leaving Him, Peter said to Jesus, “Master, it is good for us to be here; let us make three tabernacles: one for You, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah”—not realizing what he was saying.”
“As these were leaving Him,” uses the Present, Middle, Infinitive of the Verb DIACHŌRIZO, διαχωρίζω that is also only used here in the NT. Typically meaning to “separate.”
Peter desires the “Parousia” (Second Coming) to continue, so he asks Jesus a question, calling Him “Master,” EPISTATES, a term only Luke uses in His gospel several times, as Luke liked to use this term regarding the address of Jesus. Peter did “not understand”, OUK OIDA, the departure of Moses and Elijah and what his suggestion to Jesus was about.
Only Luke records Peter’s suggestion that they “make,” POIEO, “three,” TREIS, “tabernacles,” SKENE , “tent, booth, or dwelling,” so their fellowship might continue there on the mountain.
It is interesting that Peter recognized Moses and Elijah even though they were not told who they were, as we assume because nothing is recorded that Jesus told them. Maybe in overhearing their conversation, they heard them using each other’s names.
Peter did not understand that this was the fulfillment of the prophecy of vs. 27. Instead, he wanted to build three tents for them to stay in, which reminds us of the Tabernacle in the wilderness, Ex 40:1-38, a tent like structure that housed the Shekinah Glory, pillar of cloud by day and pillar of fire by night; the theophany of our Lord Jesus Christ. Ex 40:34, “Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.”
So, Peter had a good thought based on Scripture, but the wrong application. Again, He was thinking in earthly terms, when our Lord showed him heavenly application. The three, Jesus, Moses, and Elijah, were already “clothed” in their heavenly tents of glory. They did not need earthly ones to dwell in.
Luke 9:34, “While he was saying this, a cloud formed and began to overshadow them; and they were afraid as they entered the cloud.”
Even though it was not a theophany of Jesus, “a cloud, NEPHELE, formed and overshadowed, EPISKIAZO, them.” We previously noted EPISKIAZO in Luke 1:35, for the “overshadowing,” of the Holy Spirit and power of the Most High over Mary to conceive the child, Jesus. Matthew and Mark both use this word only here.
Clouds are also associated with the coming of the “Son of Man,” Mark 14:62, the Rapture of the Church, 1 Thes 4:16-18, Jesus’ ascension into heaven, Acts 1:9, and the transportation of the two prophets in Rev 11:12.
As a result of this great cloud coming over them, the disciples became “afraid” or frightened, PHOBEO.
Luke 9:35, “Then a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is My Son, My Chosen One; listen to Him!””
This is the second occurrence of God the Father praising His Son, as prophesied in Isa 42:1. The first occurrence was at His baptism by John, as we noted in Luke 3:22.
Peter would later write about this in 2 Peter 1:17, “For when He received honor and glory from God the Father, such an utterance as this was made to Him by the Majestic Glory, “This is My beloved Son with whom I am well-pleased.”
At the Transfiguration, Matthew records in Mat 17:5, “While he was still speaking, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and behold, a voice out of the cloud said, “This is My beloved Son, with whom I am well-pleased; listen to Him!””
Mark records in Mark 9:7, “Then a cloud formed, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, “This is My beloved Son, listen to Him!””
All three accounts have the Father telling the disciples to “listen to Him,” AKOUO AUTOS, which most likely is a fulfillment of Deut 18:15, “The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him.”
Jesus is greater than the Law (Moses) and the Prophets (Elijah); He is the fulfillment of both! Cf. Luke 4:21; 24:25-27, 44-49; Acts 13:27. He is the one and only that we should be listening to. We are to listen to Jesus for the final word on salvation, not Elijah and Moses or any other prophet from old. The NT never looks favorably on Christians turning back to the law or to Judaism. Those things belong to the former time. In these last days God has spoken to us by his Son, Heb 1:1-3. We are to listen to Jesus alone because He is greater than Moses and all the other prophets, Heb 3:3-6.
In addition, only Luke notes that the Father calls Jesus, “My Chosen One,” EKLEGOMAI, ἐκλέγομαι “choose, select, elect.” This is God’s Plan for salvation. He has planned it and designed who would fulfill it. Jesus Christ was chosen by God the Father to fulfill His Plan of salvation. This reminds us that because of Jesus’ completed work upon the Cross and our faith in Him, we too are “chosen ones,” of God, Eph 1:4, “Just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and blameless before Him. In love.”
Luke 9:36, “And when the voice had spoken, Jesus was found alone. And they kept silent, and reported to no one in those days any of the things which they had seen.”
When the voice of God the Father had ended, the disciples only saw Jesus, as Moses and Elijah had departed. In Luke’s account the disciples did not tell anyone what they had seen and heard. The other gospels indicate that once again Jesus instructed them to keep silent about these things until after His death.
Mat 17:9, “As they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying, “Tell the vision to no one until the Son of Man has risen from the dead”.”
Mark 9:9, “As they were coming down from the mountain, He gave them orders not to relate to anyone what they had seen, until the Son of Man rose from the dead.”
Until they saw Jesus resurrected, Jesus did not want them telling others what they saw regarding His resurrection body and that of Moses and Elijah. Most likely, because people would not understand prior to that event, just as the disciples did not and began to “dispute” what it meant to be resurrected, Mark 9:10, “They seized upon that statement, discussing with one another what rising from the dead meant.”
As we have noted, the disciples did not even understand the idea of the suffering of Jesus, the Cross of Jesus, and the resurrection of Jesus, much less the transfiguration of Jesus, until He appeared to them after the resurrection and opened their eyes, cf. Luke 24:31-35, 44-49.