The Gospel of Luke ~ Chapter 6:24-36 ~ The Great Sermon on the Plain (cont.) – Luke’s Anti-Beatitudes ~ Principles of Loving

Vol. 18, No. 34 –  September 15, 2019

9 15 19 - Luke 6 vs 24-30 - The Great Sermon on the Plain - Lukes anti-Beatitudes - Principles of Loving - web picThe Gospel of Luke
Chapter 6:24-3

IV. The Associates of His Ministry, Luke 6:12-49,

A. The call of the disciples, Luke 6:12-16.

B. The characteristics of disciples, (The Great Sermon), Luke 6:17-49.

1. Vs. 20-26, Blessings and Woes / Warnings – The beatitudes and anti-beatitudes.

2. Vs. 27-36, Principles of Loving.

3. Vs. 37-45, Principles of Forgiving.

4. Vs. 46-49, Principles of Obeying

This week, we turn to the Four Woes / Warnings, a.k.a., the anti-Beatitudes, in vs. 24-26, and Principles of Loving in vs. 27-36.

b. The Woes / Warnings, anti-Beatitudes, vs. 24-26.

1) Luke 6:24, “But woe to you who are rich, for you are receiving your comfort in full.”

2) Luke 6:25a, “Woe to you who are well-fed now, for you shall be hungry.”

3) Luke 6:25b, “Woe to you who laugh now, for you shall mourn and weep.”

4) Luke 6:26, “Woe to you when all men speak well of you, for their fathers used to treat the false prophets in the same way.”

Here, we have four anti-beatitudes that counter the beatitudes Luke just mentioned in vs. 20-23. They line up one for one. Matthew does not have these counterpoints in the Sermon of the Mount.

Upcoming, there will be another listing of “woes” in Luke 11:42-52, regarding Jesus’ warning to the Pharisees and Scribes/Lawyers that Matthew also records in Mat 23:13-29. And, there are the three “woes” in the book of Revelation, cf. Rev 8:13; 9:12; 11:14; 12:12, and the woes regarding Babylon, Rev 18:10, 16, 19. There are also other various woe warnings in the NT, some of which Jesus made, Luke 10:13; 17:1; 22:22.

Luke’s woes/warnings are the anti-type of the beatitudes he just listed. These are directed toward those who are unbelievers and living inside of Satan’s cosmic system, rather than being a believer and living inside the Kingdom of God.

Woe,” is the Greek Interjection, OUAI, οὐαί that means, “Alas, or woe!” It is used 41 times in the NT. It has the concept of judgment, warning, denunciation, grief, and sorrow. Here, it is our Lord’s warning and denunciation, followed by judgment, towards the unbeliever who rejects Jesus as their Messiah. It is an expression of His dismay, regret, and compassion towards the unbeliever. He is expressing disappointment, as well as condemnation for the actions and attitudes of those who will not accept the Kingdom He offers.

1) Luke 6:24, “But woe to you who are rich, for you are receiving your comfort in full.”

This is the counter to the 1st Beatitude in Luke 6:20b, “Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God.”

The 1st anti-Beatitude is being “Rich,” is the Adjective PLOUSIOS that means, “rich or wealthy,” and customarily used to indicate “fullness” of material possessions; affluence, or being rich. As we see in Scripture, many times riches are an impediment to participating in God’s kingdom, Mat 19:23-24; Mark 10:23-25;  Luke 18:24-25; cf. Mat 13:22, and believers are not to put their hope in their wealth, but in God, who “richly” provides them with everything, 1 Tim 6:17; Eph 2:4.

Luke 18:24-25, “And Jesus looked at him and said, ‘How hard it is for those who are wealthy to enter the kingdom of God! 25For it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God’.”

So here, Jesus pronounced “woe” upon those who are rich, whose heart is tied to their possessions, James 2:5ff; 5:1.

James 5:1, “Come now, you rich, weep and howl for your miseries which are coming upon you.”

Rich,” is also used as the headline for the following three woes, as each could be assumed to be characteristics of the worldly rich person.

The 1st anti-Blessing is, “receiving your comfort in full,” compared to the blessing for the positive believer “for yours is the kingdom of God.”

“Receiving in full” is one word in the Greek, the Present, Active, Indicative of the Verb APECHO, ἀπέχω that means, “keep, abstain, to be for, or to have in full.” It is from APO “from,” and ECHO, “to have and hold.” In classical Greek it was a technical term for “having received payment,” (in full). Though Matthew does not use the “woes,” he gave several examples of the rich having received their rewards in full here on earth in Mat 6:2, 5, 16.

Their reward in time is “comfort,” which is the Noun PARAKLESIS, παράκλησις that means, “exhortation, encouragement, consolation, and comfort.” All are in view as we also note in Matthew’s “rewards,” MITHOS. They are being praised and lifted up by men, and having their needs met through Satan’s cosmic system, cf. Mat 6:2, 5, 16.

Mat 6:2, “So when you give to the poor, do not sound a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, so that they may be honored by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full.” 

Mat 6:5, “When you pray, you are not to be like the hypocrites; for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and on the street corners so that they may be seen by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full.”

Mat 6:16, “Whenever you fast, do not put on a gloomy face as the hypocrites do, for they neglect their appearance so that they will be noticed by men when they are fasting. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full. “

Therefore, because their comfort was their money, when their lives end and their money is gone, there will be no comfort for them. They will outlive their money, and their money will outlive its usefulness. All that will be left apart from Jesus is woe.

2) Luke 6:25a, “Woe to you who are well-fed now, for you shall be hungry.”

This is the counter to the 2nd Beatitude in Luke 6:21a, “Blessed are you who hunger now, for you shall be satisfied.”

The 2nd anti-Beatitude is being “well-fed,” which is the Perfect, Passive, Participle, in the subject Nominative case of the Verb EMPIMPLEMI, ἐμπίμπλημι that means, “fill or satisfy.” It is only used in Luke 1:53; 6:25; John 6:12; Acts 14:17; Rom 15:24 and can mean, “to fill quite full.” In those uses, it means physical fullness, Luke 1:53, a “satisfied” condition because one has had plenty to eat, Luke 6:25; John 6:12, cf. Acts 14:17. It can also imply a sense of “enjoying something” by having your “fill,” like someone’s company, Rom 15:24.

With this we have the Adjective NUN that means, “now” or “at this or that very time.” In other words, “right now,” but not in the future.

The 2nd anti-Blessing is “shall be hungry,” compared to “shall be satisfied” in 21a. Shall be hungry” is the Future, Active, Indicative of the Verb PEINAO, πεινάω that means, “to be hungry, to hunger, or to long for something which is necessary for the sustenance of life.” It means here, an intense desire for spiritual nourishment; that which is necessary for the continuance of life, i.e., life in heaven / the Kingdom of God that will never be satisfied. They will consistently and eternally long for the “Bread of Life!”

These are the ones who have missed out on God’s sustenance for eternal life through Jesus Christ, Psa 107:9; Luke 1:53; cf. John 6:35.

Luke 1:53, “HE HAS FILLED THE HUNGRY WITH GOOD THINGS; and sent away the rich empty-handed.”

Psa 107:9, “For He has satisfied the thirsty soul, and the hungry soul He has filled with what is good.”

John 6:35, “Jesus said to them, ‘I am the bread of life; he who comes to Me will not hunger, and he who believes in Me will never thirst’.”

Therefore, we see that the “full now” crowd has lived high off the hog. They satisfy their desires now. They have refrigerators full and money to eat out, now. But when judgment comes, they will be hungry. Hell for them will be a constant hungering, never being satisfied, a gnawing in their guts. Their worm will never die. They had it all in this life, yet they will have nothing in the life to come because they did not have Christ. As such, those who gorge themselves with present worldly enjoyments, ignoring the more important spiritual realities, will find themselves left in a state of bitter disappointment and unsatisfied yearning when life’s short day is ended.

3) Luke 6:25b, “Woe to you who laugh now, for you shall mourn and weep.”

This is the counter to the 3rd Beatitude in Luke 6:21b, “Blessed are you who weep now, for you shall laugh.”

The 3rd anti-Beatitude is “laughing now,” which is the Present, Active, Participle, Nominative of the Verb GELAO with the Adverb NUN once again for “now.” GELAO, γελάω means “laugh,” as we noted in vs. 21. It is only used in these two verses in the NT. As we noted above in the positive beatitude, laughter indicates satisfaction and contentment. In these two verses, it is used first positively for the mirth or merriment resulting from a joyful disposition knowing you have an eternal life in and with Christ, and negatively, as here, in a pejorative sense to mean laughing in time as one lives inside of Satan’s cosmic system despite the seriousness of the situation where they do not have a spiritual life in Christ, which instead ought to call for “mourning and weeping.”

Therefore, the 3rd anti-Blessing is “mourning and weeping.” They both are Verbs in the Future, Active, Indicative. This is the state of emotion they will be in for all of eternity.

Mourn” is PENTHEO. πενθέω that means, “Be sad, lament, grieve, mourn,” which we noted in Matthew’s 2nd Beatitude, Mat 5:4. This is the internal emotion they will feel consistently in the eternal state.

Weep,” is the word we noted in Luke’s 3rd Beatitude, KLAIO, κλαίω that means, “weep, mourn, lament, cry, show emotion.” This is the outward action or expression due to the inward emotion they will constantly perform in the eternal state. Therefore, in the eternal state, they will have both inward sorrow and outward lamenting due to regret for rejecting God’s plan of salvation.

As such, those who are laughing now, will not have the last laugh. In fact, many places in the Bible describe judgment and hell as “weeping and gnashing of teeth,” Mat 8:12; 13:42, 50; 22:13; 24:51; 25:30; Luke 13:28.

Luke 13:28, “In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth when you see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God, but yourselves being thrown out.”

“To live for pleasure and seek after folly and carnal mirth in a scene where there is so much reason to be serious and sober-minded, means to face an eternity of tears and mourning as one realizes the sadness of wasted talents and opportunities.” (H.A. Ironside Expository Commentary – Luke). In the end, they will be sorry they spent their lives laughing in the worldly pleasures apart from Jesus.

4) Luke 6:26a, “Woe to you when all men speak well of you, …”

This is the counter to the 4th Beatitude in Luke 6:22 “Blessed are you when men hate you, and ostracize you, and insult you, and scorn your name as evil, for the sake of the Son of Man.”

The 4th anti-Beatitude is “when all men speak well of you,” using EIPON “to speak or say,” something about you. Here it is speaking “well,” the Adjective KALOS, καλῶς that means, “good, well, correctly, rightly, commendably, or beautifully,” “of or about you.”

This means you have a good reputation from those living inside of Satan’s cosmic system because you are like them and one of them. Yes, we should try to have a good reputation with those outside of the Church, 1 Tim 3:7. But that is speaking about operating in righteousness and not giving the enemy and your OSN an opportunity to lead you astray, Gal 5:13; 6:10; Eph 4:27; Col 4:5; 1 Tim 5:14.

Gal 5:13, “For you were called to freedom, brethren; only do not turn your freedom into an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another.” 

Gal 6:10, “So then, while we have opportunity, let us do good to all people, and especially to those who are of the household of the faith.”

Eph 4:27, “And do not give the devil an opportunity.”

Col 4:5, “Conduct yourselves with wisdom toward outsiders, making the most of the opportunity.”

1 Tim 5:14, “Therefore, I want younger widows to get married, bear children, keep house, and give the enemy no occasion for reproach.”

But, our passage is talking about running in sin with those of this world where they will boast about you and your sinful or unbelieving ways.

The rational for this anti-beatitude is found in vs. 26b, “…for their fathers used to treat the false prophets in the same way.”

This is the counter to the rationale of the beatitude in vs 23b, “… for in the same way their fathers used to treat the true prophets.

This anti-beatitude also does not add, “for the sake of the Son of Man,” since it is addressing unbelievers or even reversionistic believers. It also does not mention any consequence, but we can assume they will be the opposite of the blessings found in vs. 23. Therefore, they will have inner turmoil expressed by outward sadness and grief, along with no inheritance or rewards in the eternal state.

The context of this anti-beatitude is “treat the false prophets,” PSEUDOPROPHETES, ψευδοπροφήτης. It means, those who taught and lived opposed to or counter to God and His Word. Many times, the “false prophet” would simply counterfeit the things or Word of God, by twisting them just enough to make its application false or untrue. They would do so to gain the acceptance and allegiance of the people who apparently would speak favorably about them. Therefore, those who taught counter to God and His Word were held in high regard by unbelievers and reversionistic believers.

The false prophets also included the priests and priestesses of the ancient pagan religions that would tell the people it was ok to worship in the way of their false gods, which would lead people astray from the One true God, and many times keep them from knowing Him for salvation, as they do today, Mat 24:11, 24; 2 Peter 2:1; 1 John 4:1. Even the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Scribes of Jesus’ day were considered by Him and God the Father as false prophets, because they did not teach the truth of salvation to the people of Israel or the world, Mat 7:15. Yet, they spoke falsely and eloquently so that the people would speak favorably about them.

“The people loved inviting preachers and teachers who would tell them all that their itching ears wanted to hear. The true prophets they rejected, but the false prophets they loved. Beware platforms and popularity. Popularity is sometimes evidence of God’s condemnation and a disciple’s unfaithfulness rather than God’s approval or favor.” (Christ-Centered Exposition – Exalting Jesus in Luke.)

Therefore, the wealthy, well-liked person without Jesus is the most doomed person you will ever meet, because as long as they are without Jesus, everything about their life may look wonderful, but He Himself said, “They have no reward. Their future is full of woe.”

In summary, all four of these woes speak of people who appear to enjoy all that the world has to offer, yet there is no life in Christ in their life. They live it up now without Jesus, and receive a warm welcome from all those who also are living without Christ in their lives too. Yet, they are doomed to spiritual and physical poverty, hunger, sorrow, and loneliness in the eternal state, because they rejected Jesus Christ as their Savior. This was the object of the parable our Lord taught in Luke 16:19-31, about the rich man and Lazarus.

Yet, for the positive believer, even though they may suffer for a little while here in time, they will have tremendous blessings in time and especially in the eternal estate including their eternal inheritance and BEMA seat rewards.

We now turn to the second part of Section B. The characteristics of disciples, in The Great Sermon on the Plain, Luke 6:17-49.

2. Principles of Loving within the Great Sermon on the Plain, vs. 27-36.

a. Love your enemies by doing good to those that hate you, vs. 27.

b. Love by:

1) Blessing those who curse you, vs. 28a.

2) Praying for those who mistreat you, vs. 28b.

3) Being longsuffering, vs. 29-30:

i. Continue to offer yourself to serve the one who harms you, vs. 29a.

ii. Offer them greater opportunities for service, vs. 29b.

iii. Be ready to give again and again, vs. 30a.

iv. Do not demand your belongings back, even if taken illicitly, vs. 30b.

c. Love by the principle, “Do unto others,” vs. 31.

d. Love by having impersonal / unconditional mental attitude AGAPE love with the physical expression of that love by producing Divine Good Production actions, both verbal and overt, vs. 32-34.

1) The Goal, vs. 32-35a.

i. Have a mental attitude of love towards all, especially those who hate you or have mistreated you, vs. 32.

ii. Perform physical Divine Good Production, the fruit of the Spirit, by helping the unbeliever or reversionistic believer, vs. 33.

iii. Be a gracious giver / lender, without expectations of repayment or quid pro quo, vs 34.

2) The Encouragement, vs 35b-d.

i. When you do, you will be blessed in time and eternity by God, vs. 35b.

ii. When you do, you will demonstrate your Royal Family status, vs. 35c.

iii. When you do, you will demonstrate the kindness and grace of God, vs 35d.

e. By loving your neighbor as you love yourself, you show mercy towards the unbeliever and reversionistic believer, just as your heavenly Father does, vs 36.

Vs. 27a, “But I say to you who hear.”

Interestingly, this discourse begins with what Israel would call the “great SHAMA.” SHAMA in Hebrew means, “hear.” In the opening passage the Greek uses the equivalent, AKOUO in the Present, Active Indicative. The Great SHAMA comes from Deut 6:4, but was introduced by Moses in Deut 5:1, regarding Israel to keep God’s ordinances, the 10 Commandments specifically, which meant to first Love God and then Love each other.

Deut 5:1, “Then Moses summoned all Israel and said to them: “Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordinances which I am speaking today in your hearing, that you may learn them and observe them carefully.”

This is then plainly given in Deut 6:4-9.

Deut 6:4-5, “Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one! 5You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might.”

Therefore, when our Lord Jesus Christ begins the Great Sermon on the Plain with AKOUO, “hear, listen, and learn.” He is reminding the people of God’s great commandments to fist Love God and then to Love their neighbor.

Matthew’s record of the Sermon on the Mount includes similar principles in Mat 5:38-48, that begin with the Aorist, Active, Indicative of AKOUO for “you have heard,” which is a similar calling back to God’s great commandments.

Luke’s record of the Great Plain Sermon teaches how to “love,” AGAPE, in 5 sections:

a. Love your enemies by doing good to those that hate you, vs. 27.

Vs. 27b, “Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you.”

Enemies,” is the Pronominal use of the Adjective ECHTHROS that means, “hated, hostile; an enemy, the enemy meaning Satan himself,” Cf. Mat 13:39; Eph 6:11; 1 Peter 5:8. It primarily refers to those who oppose God, meaning the unsaved that are “alienated and enemies,” because of their hostile minds and their evil deeds, Col 1:21, as we all were at one time. Notice in the verse prior, Col 1:20, Jesus died to, “Reconcile all things to Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross; through Him, I say, whether things on earth or things in heaven.” Jesus even died for Satan!!!! So too, should we lay down our lives if at all possible it could save an unbeliever.

Hate you,” is the Present, Active, Participle in the Dative case of the Verb MISEO, μισέω that means, “hate, detest, abhor, or prefer against.” This is the mental attitude of the sinner, (unbeliever or reversionistic believer). It is a malicious feeling by someone who may be antagonist towards you. This mental attitude leads to verbal and overt actions that could harm you. It is the opposite of AGAPE Love. Therefore, we are not to imitate the sinner with hate towards others, but instead imitate God by having AGAPE love for all of mankind.

Yet, we are to always keep in mind John 7:7, “The world cannot hate you, but it hates Me because I testify of it, that its deeds are evil.” Those who express hatred towards you are really hating Jesus. Therefore, you should be able to Love them as He did.

Rom 12:20, “But if your enemy is hungry, feed him, and if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in so doing you will heap burning coals on his head.” Cf. Prov 25:21-22.

“Do good,” here is the verb POIEO, “do, make, produce, etc.,” with the Adverb KALOS, καλῶς that means, “good(ly), well, correctly, rightly, useful, noble, commendably, or beautifully.” It also means, “fair treatment” or being “well regarded” by others.

Typically, we would think the word AGATHOS, “good of intrinsic value,” would be used here, but it is not. AGATHOS has a greater connotation of overt actions. But, with KALOS, it correlates to “speaking well of others” in vs. 26 above, and the opposite of “casting insults or saying all kinds of evil against someone,” in vs. 22. Therefore, in our verse, it means to continue to speak well of your enemies and those that hate you. As such, because someone has gossiped, maligned, slandered, lied about you, etc., it does not give you the right to do the same back to them in retaliation or revenge. In fact, you should do the opposite of what they have done to you and speak well of them. In other words, “kill them with kindness,” or in this case “kind words.”

As such, you may be able to refrain from hating your enemy, but that is not enough, according to Jesus’ view. You may be able to put up with your enemies, ignore them, or refuse to retaliate, but these also are not enough. Jesus tells us to “love them,” which begins with a mental attitude that results in actionable items, as we will see below. Therefore, as His followers, we do not have to approve of what our enemies do. We do not even have to admire or like them, but we do have to love them.

This love is more than a vague mental attitude; it is a positive reaction towards them, even if they present a negative action towards you. Love is not love, until it acts.

For example, I remember when I was a child and my father was a Selectman in our home town. There was a certain policy that my father favored that came up and a certain other gentleman vehemently fought against it. One was a republican, the other a democrat. They fought bitterly over the policy and appeared to be enemies. Later that day or night, they ran into each other at a local restaurant and my father cordially greeted him and invited him to sit down and treated him with kindness. Well, as the night wore on, they spoke about many things and by nights end were friends and then went on to be best friends. It was a demonstration of winning a soul, rather than maintaining an enemy. And in fact, a year or so later, my father helped to get him elected also to the board of selectman. Therefore, when we treat others with love, even though they may be an enemy today, tomorrow they could be a close friend or even child of God.

b. Love by:

    1) Blessing those who curse you, vs. 28a.

    2) Praying for those who mistreat you, vs. 28b.

    3) Being longsuffering, vs. 29-30.

i. Continue to offer yourself to serve the one who harms you, vs. 29a.

ii. Offer them greater opportunities for service, vs. 29b.

iii. Be ready to give again and again, vs. 30a.

iv. Do not demand your belongings back, even if taken illicitly, vs. 30b.

Vs. 28a, “Bless those who curse you.”

1) We are first commanded to “Bless” our enemies, the Present, Active, Imperative of EULOGEO, εὐλογέω that means, “speak well of, praise, extol, or bless.” In the Imperative Mood, it is a command to have the right mental attitude towards the antagonist where you are able to “speak well,” of them by seeing the good and not focusing on the bad, Rom 12:9-14; 1 Peter 3:9.

The ones we are to bless, (i.e., have a relaxed mental attitude towards with AGAPE love), are those who “Curse,” us, the Greek Verb KATARAOMAI means, “to will evil against you.” This has the connotation that they have a judgmental mental attitude towards you that wants harm to befall on you that they may carry out themselves either verbally or overtly.

Rom 12:14, “Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse.”

1 Peter 3:9, “Not returning evil for evil or insult for insult, but giving a blessing instead; for you were called for the very purpose that you might inherit a blessing.”

When we are able to do this, we are fulfilling the 4th Beatitude above, vs. 22, and in turn will be “blessed” MAKARIOS by God.

Vs. 28b, “Pray for those who mistreat you.”

2) Then we are commanded to “Pray for them,” the Present, Active, Imperative of PROSEUCHOMAI, προσεύχομαι. That means we first turn the problem over to God. We give it to Him and ask for a solution to the situation and then look for His answer as to what we should do, if anything, in that situation; all the while trusting in Him and waiting on His timing.

The enemies who curse you are now also “Mistreating,” you, EPEREAZO ἐπηρεάζω “insult, treat abusively, revile, or slander.” The enemy’s negative mental attitude towards you is now expressed in verbal sins against you. This word is only used here and in the parallel of Mat 5:44, “persecute you,” and 1 Peter 3:16.

1 Peter 3:16, “And keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame.”

Vs. 29-30, Being longsuffering.

3) The third segment on being longsuffering is broken down in four units:

i. Be ready to offer yourself to serve the one who harms you, vs. 29a.

ii. Be ready to offer greater opportunities for service, vs. 29b.

iii. Be ready to give again and again, vs. 30a.

iv. Be ready to forgive debts against you, vs. 30b.

Vs. 29a, “Whoever hits you on the cheek, offer him the other also.”

i. Be ready to offer yourself to serve the one who harms you, vs. 29a.

This is where we get the proverbial phrase, “turn the other cheek,” that speaks of longsuffering and forgiveness. In our passage, it also speaks to loving your neighbor by offering service to them, even if they have harmed you.

Striking” is the Verb TUPTO, τύπτω that means, “beat, smite, strike (someone else or oneself), sting, or wound,” and it can be used as a sign of wounding someone’s conscience, 1 Cor 8:12.

1 Cor 8:12, “And so, by sinning against the brethren and wounding their conscience when it is weak, you sin against Christ.”

So, this “striking” can be a physical hitting or a verbal insult of some kind that offends you or hurts your soul. It is used of Jesus when the Roman soldiers began to spit on Him, mock Him, and “strike” Him, Mat 27:30; Mark 15:19. So, we see in Jesus both the physical and verbal abuse.

Mat 27:30-31, “They spat on Him, and took the reed and began to beat Him on the head. 31After they had mocked Him, they took the scarlet robe off Him and put His own garments back on Him, and led Him away to crucify Him.”

If we are hurt by someone, we are commanded to “offer” the other cheek, using the Present, Active, Imperative of the Verb PARECHO, παρέχω that means, “hand over, offer, present; supply, show, cause, or bring about.” Reflexively, it also means submission or giving oneself up for or to something or someone. In our passage, we are to offer up our other cheek to the one who struck us. In other words, if they have done something against you, do not retaliate, instead continue to be open to them where they may strike you again. We are not to put up walls or repay evil with evil, Prov 20:22; Rom 12:17.

Prov 20:22, “Do not say, ‘I will repay evil’; Wait for the LORD, and He will save you.”

Rom 12:17, “Never pay back evil for evil to anyone. Respect/think about what is right/good (KALOS) in the sight of all men.”

And, remember that God is the one who will deal with all evil, 2 Sam 3:29; Psa 28:4; Jer 51:24.

Vs. 29b, “And whoever takes away your coat, do not withhold your shirt from him either.”

ii. Be ready to offer greater opportunities for service, vs. 29b.

Here, the context is taking or even stealing your coat. If they do, then you should continue in service where they could possibly take your shirt too.

Takes away” is the Verb AIRO, αἴρω that means, “raise, lift up, take up, pick up, bear away, or carry off.” This is the sense of someone taking something from you illicitly, and this case, your outer garment or “coat,” HIMATION, ἱμάτιον, “garment, clothing, cloak, or robe.”

Do not withhold” uses the Greek negative ME, “do not,” and the Aorist, Active, Subjunctive mood of the Verb KOLUP, κωλύω that means, “stop, hinder, prevent, forbid, restrain, or withhold.” The Subjunctive is one of Prohibition, which is a negative command to forbid something from occurring. In this case, the forbidden action is not allowing your shirt to be taken away too. Therefore, we should not refuse to give up our “shirt,” CHITON, χιτών, “tunic or inner garment,” if it might further the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Vs. 30a, “Give to everyone who asks of you.”

iii. Be ready to give again and again, vs. 30a.

In this context, we have someone asking us, (AITEO, “ask, request, or demand’), for something that we are able to provide. When they ask, and we have the means or ability to supply what they are asking for, then we are commanded to give it to them, with the Present, Active, Imperative of the Verb DIDOMI, δίδωμι that means, “give, give out, hand over, entrust, give back, give up.” We are not to be cheapskates or withhold what we are able to provide when we are confronted with a request to satisfy someone’s need, whether they are friend or foe.

Vs. 30b, “And whoever takes away what is yours, do not demand it back.”

iv. Be ready to forgive debts against you, vs. 30b.

Takes away” is the Verb AIRO, as in vs. 29. The command here uses the Greek Negative ME, “do not,” with the Present, Active, Imperative of the Verb APAITEO, ἀπαιτέω that means, “ask for, demand (something) back, require, or reclaim.” It is only used here and in Luke 12:20. This word is also used in the LXX, especially in Deut 15:3, regarding the Year of Jubilee when all debts were nullified. At that time, all loans would be forgiven and the debt was freed and cleared. Therefore, our Lord desires that we have a mental attitude, backed up by our actions, of living every day as if it were the Year of Jubilee and forgive any debts that others have towards us, rather than demand payback for wrongs done against us. In this way, we will show the love, grace, and mercy of God to others, with the hopes of their salvation. Therefore, we have the principle do not demand your belongings back, even if taken illicitly, and forgive those who have sinned against you, Mat 6:12; Luke 11:4.

Mat 6:12, “And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors.”

Luke 11:4, “And forgive us our sins, for we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us.”

c. Love by the principle, “Do unto others,” vs. 31.

Vs. 31, “Treat others the same way you want them to treat you.” 

Matthew quotes our Lord’s saying during the Sermon on the Mount in Mat 7:12, “In everything, therefore, treat people the same way you want them to treat you, for this is the Law and the Prophets.”

This is the often quoted and misquoted “Golden Rule,” “Do unto others as you would have done to you.”

A literal reading of Luke’s passage in the Greek is, “And, just as you desire that men should do to you, do to them in the same way.”

“As you desire,” uses the Verb THELO, θέλω that means, “to wish to have, desire, to purpose to do, or to be willing.” With this is “men or people,” ANTHROPOS, and “that should do to you,” which is a complementary HINA, “that” clause with the Present, Active, Subjunctive of POIEO, “do,” with the Pronoun HUMEIS, “you.” It is the compliment to the upcoming command, “do to them in the same way,” that uses the Present, Active, Imperative of the POIEO, “do,” with AUTOS, “them,” with the Adverb HOMOIOS, “likewise, in the same way, similarly, etc.”

As such, we have the principle of “do unto others, as you would have them do to you,” but in reverse where our passage first speaks of how we want others to treat us, and then how we should treat others. The command is on “how we treat others,” with the object lesson of “how we desire others to treat us.” Therefore, regardless of how we are treated by others, we should always treat them the way we would desire to be treated. That is AGAPE Love! In other words, we do not reflect the evil actions of others back on to them. Instead, we should reflect the image of God onto them and treat others with kindness, grace, mercy, and love.

“The radical agape-type love (verse 27, agapate, imperative) is not love given in exchange for something. It expects no return. In fact, in the face of violence, theft, ridicule, and mistreatment (verses 28, 29), the disciple must take positive action in direct contradiction to the world’s value system. Such action is the mark of the genuine disciple of Christ.” (Complete Biblical Library Commentary – Luke).

d. Love by having impersonal / unconditional mental attitude AGAPE love with the physical expression of that love by producing Divine Good actions towards others, both verbal and overt, vs. 32-35.

        1) The Goal, vs. 32-35a.

a) Have a mental attitude of love towards all, especially those who hate you or have mistreated you, 32.

b) Perform physical Divine Good Production, the fruit of the Spirit, by helping the unbeliever or reversionistic believer, 33.

c) Be a gracious giver / lender, without expectations of repayment or quid pro quo, vs 34.

d) Summarization, 35a.

        2) The Encouragement, vs 35b-d.

a) When you do, you will be blessed in time and eternity by God, 35b.

b) When you do, you will demonstrate your Royal Family status, 35c.

c) When you do, you will demonstrate the kindness and grace of God, vs 35d.

        1) The Goal, vs. 32-35a.

Matthew’s parallel is found in Mat 5:46-48, “For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? 47If you greet only your brothers, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same? 48Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.”

In Luke’s Gospel we are told to:

a) Have a mental attitude of love towards all, especially those who hate you or have mistreated you, vs. 32.

Luke 6:32, “If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them.”

Here, AGAPE “love” is used four times for impersonal /unconditional love that produces Divine good towards others. It tells us, if we only love those who love us what “credit” is that to you, where “credit,” is the Greek Noun CHARIS that means, “grace, graciousness, kindness, goodwill, a gift, a favor, thanks, or gratitude.” In other words, where is the “grace” in loving only those who love you? There is none! But, when you are able to love those who do not love you, that is true grace and a demonstration of the Christ-like nature in you!

b) Perform physical Divine Good Production, the fruit of the Spirit, by helping the unbeliever or reversionistic believer, vs. 33.

Luke 6:33, “If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same.”

Here, “good” is AGATHOPOIEO, for “to do good to, or to act correctly.” It is used twice. This is the actionable aspect of our love or the expression of our AGAPE love to others. Again, the object lesson of, “even sinners do good to other sinners” is in view. Therefore, there is no CHARIS, “grace” in that either. But, if you can perform Divine good production, the Fruit of the Spirit, towards those who are antagonistic towards you, you are once again demonstrating the Christ-like nature of Love!

c) Be a gracious giver / lender, without expectations of repayment or quid pro quo, vs 34.

Luke 6:34, “If you lend to those from whom you expect to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners in order to receive back the same amount.”

The third object lesson is “lending,” DANEIZO, “lend money or borrow,” used only in vs. 34-35 and Mat 5:42. Lending to others with the expectation to receive, ELPIZO, “hope for or expect,” with APOLAMBANO, “receive back,” is the way of the world, i.e., “sinners,” HAMARTOLOS. But, to lend and not expect repayment is not of this world, but of God, who freely gives to all, especially His Son and Salvation through the forgiveness of sins. Therefore, in our Christ-like nature, we should have the mental attitude, followed up by our actions of not desiring repayment if we lend to others. This does not mean me we cannot be repaid or charge interest. It means, we have a mental attitude of forgiving debts against us when necessary, and not holding it over someone’s head, i.e., “lording it over them.” In addition, this is part of the “graciousness” policy we should always maintain in our heart. If someone needs money for a specific need, and we have the means to provide the money for it, in grace we should give them the necessary funds.

In addition, this is the lesson on forgiveness of debts against us, as in vs. 30b, that is also the object lesson of our Lord’s parable in Mat 18:21-35.

d) Summarization, vs. 35a.

Luke 6:35, “But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return; …”

This is the summary of all that Jesus just said, love (AGAPE) your enemies, do good (AGATHOPOIEO), and lend (DANEIZO), expecting nothing in return, (MEDEIS APELAPIZO). APELAPIZO is an hapaxlegomena. It literally means, “without hope” in the Greek language or “to despair.” But here, with the negative MEDEIS that can mean, “nothing,” it means, “expect nothing in return.” Therefore, there is no quid pro quo, or any expectations. If they happen to pay you back, so be it.

This also tells us that we should not hold a loan over someone’s head by demanding certain actions or behavior from them towards us. We do not “lord” it over them. We are to treat them as if nothing has occurred.

2) The Encouragement, vs 35b-d.

a) When you do, you will be blessed in time and eternity by God, vs. 35b.

b) When you do, you will demonstrate your Royal Family status, vs. 35c.

c) When you do, you will demonstrate the kindness and grace of God, vs 35d.

d) When you do, you will be merciful just as God the Father is, vs. 36.

Luke 6:35b, “… and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for He Himself is kind to ungrateful and evil men.”

Matthew’s parallel is found in Mat 5:44-45, “But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, 45so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.”

Here we have three blessings associated with these attitudes and actions:

a) You will be rewarded,” MISTHOS as in 23, that means you will be “rewarded, recompensed, or repaid” by God in time or eternity or both, Mat 5:12; Luke 6:23; 1 Cor 3:10-15; Rev 2-3. Whereas in vs. 32–34, Jesus commanded us to do good and not base our behavior on the hope of receiving reciprocal treatment, now He promises that in so doing, God will reward us.

1 Cor 15:41, “There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory.”

b) “You will be sons of the Most High.” Like Luke 1:32 regarding Jesus, this means we will “show ourselves to be sons of God the Father,” through our love, grace, kindness, and mercy.

Mat 5:9, “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.” Cf. Mat 5:45; Gal 4:4-7; Rom 8:14-15.

c) You will be kind to ungrateful (ACHARISTOS) and evil men (PONEROS),” just as our heavenly Father is. It means you will emulate God the Father’s character and nature, which also means you are demonstrating the Christ-like nature by being “kind,” the Adjective CHRESTOS, χρηστός that means, “good, pleasant, easy, useful, reputable; kind, or loving.” Cf. Rom 2:4; 2 Cor 6:3-10; Gal 5:22-23; Eph 4:32; Col 3:12.

Rom 2:4, “Or do you think lightly of the riches of His kindness and tolerance and patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance?”

Gals 5:22, “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,…”

Eph 4:32, “Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you.”

Col 3:12, “So, as those who have been chosen of God, holy and beloved, put on a heart of compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience.”

d)You will be merciful towards the unbeliever and reversionistic believer, just as your heavenly Father is,” vs 36.

Luke 6:36, “Be merciful, just as your Father is merciful.” “Merciful” is the Adjective OIKTIRMON, οἰκτίρμων that means, “compassionate or merciful.” It is only used in this verse twice and James 5:11 that tells us, “the Lord is full of compassion and mercy.” Cf. Psa 103:8; 111:4. It means He loves and forgives the sinner of his sins. He has done and does everything necessary to overcome that which separates man from God; our sins. Likewise, we too should have a heart of compassion and mercy and do all that we can to bring the unsaved to salvation. That is why we are commanded to do the things above in love and in this verse to be compassionate towards the sinner. When we do, we are exemplifying the nature of God, and are demonstrating God to the world.

Therefore, the disciple who lives in the “already/not yet” kingdom of God is totally the Lord’s, and you will act out the grace of God which you received by exhibiting Divine love for your enemies, just as God’s Divine love reached out to you although you were an enemy of God, cf. Rom 12:9-21; Eph 2:3ff., 12, 14-18.

Rom 12:9-21, “Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor what is evil; cling to what is good. 10Be devoted to one another in brotherly love; give preference to one another in honor; 11not lagging behind in diligence, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord; 12rejoicing in hope, persevering in tribulation, devoted to prayer,

13contributing to the needs of the saints, practicing hospitality. 14Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. 15Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep. 16Be of the same mind toward one another; do not be haughty in mind, but associate with the lowly. Do not be wise in your own estimation. 17Never pay back evil for evil to anyone. Respect what is right in the sight of all men.

18If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all men. 19Never take your own revenge, beloved, but leave room for the wrath of God, for it is written, “VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY,” says the Lord. 20“BUT IF YOUR ENEMY IS HUNGRY, FEED HIM, AND IF HE IS THIRSTY, GIVE HIM A DRINK; FOR IN SO DOING YOU WILL HEAP BURNING COALS ON HIS HEAD.” 21Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.”

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If you would like more information on this subject, you may watch/listen to lesson:

#19-093 & 19-094 & 19-095 & 19-096

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A PERSONAL NOTE FOR YOU

If you have never accepted Jesus Christ as your Lord and Savior, I am here to tell you that Jesus loves you. He loves you so much that He gave His life for you. God the Father also loves you. He loves you so much that He gave His only Son for you by sending Him to the Cross. At the Cross Jesus died in your place. Taking upon Himself all of your sins and all of my sins. He was judged for our sins and paid the price for our sins. Therefore, our sins will never be held against us.

Right where you are, you now have the opportunity to make the greatest decision in your life. To accept the free gift of salvation and eternal life by truly believing that Jesus Christ died for your sins and was raised on the third day as the proof of the promise of eternal life.

So right now, you can pause and reflect on what Christ has done for you and say to the Father:

“Yes Father, I believe that Your Son, Jesus Christ,
died on the cross for the forgiveness of my sins.”

If you have done that, I welcome you to the eternal Family of God!

 

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