The Gospel of Luke ~ Chapter 12:45-46 ~ The Unfaithful Stewards Takes Advantage of Others in an Unjust & Unloving Way ~ The Unbelieving Steward Will Receive Severe Condemnation (Hades and The Lake of Fire).

Vol. 19, No. 24 – June 28, 2020

7 28 20-Luke12vs45-46-The Unfaithful Stewards Takes Advantage of Others in an Unjust & Unloving Way-The Unbelieving Steward Will Receive Severe Condemnation Hades and The Lake of FireThe Gospel of Luke
Chapter 12

Vs. 45-48, The unfaithful steward will be condemned. Here, we have an example of the unbelieving servant. This reminds us that everyone is a child of God and is also a servant of God, even the unbeliever!

Vs. 45,

Luke 12:45, “But if that slave says in his heart, ‘My master will be a long time in coming,’ and begins to beat the slaves, both men and women, and to eat and drink and get drunk.”

Remember, our Lord is speaking to Jews of the Jewish dispensation, even though this has application for the believer of the Church Age. In this parable, we have a contrast between a faithful believer and an unbeliever; “that evil servant.” This evil servant is an unbeliever in the Tribulation. What does the unbelieving Jew in the Tribulation say in his heart? The heart is not something you feel in or emote in, it is something you say, the heart is the brain that is to be used sensibly as noted in vs. 44. So, this unbeliever of the Tribulation says, “My lord is delaying his coming.” He is an unbelieving Jew, Messiah has not come, and he does not think he will anytime soon, so what does he do?

This passage begins with “but if,” DE EAN, which is a contrasting Third Class Conditional statement, (if and maybe you will and maybe you will not). Vs. 45, is the Protasis, the “if” statement, and vs. 46, is the Apodosis, the “then,” statement. These passages show what happens when the steward rejects God’s plan of salvation and lives for himself. Therefore, even though it is a third class if, it is treated like a 1st class if, “if and you do, then this will happen to you.” Here, the protasis contrasts the “faithful and sensible steward” of the Lord from vs. 42-44, with an evil “slave” (DOULOS) / steward.

That slave,” EKEINOS DOULOS, shows us that Jesus adjusted His terminology when comparing this unwise steward to his faithful and sensible counterpart. Both men serve their master’s interests, and both hold the rank of “slave” or “bond-servant.” Yet, in the first example, Jesus referred to the slave as a “steward.” However, in the second, the slave is never referred to anything more than a slave despite the power delegated to him. In Jesus’ eye there is no promotional opportunity for the evil steward.

DOULOS is used with the Subjunctive mood in the phrases “says in his heart,” “begins to beat,” and “eat, drink, and get drunk.” Note how the abuse began: the steward thought because his lord delayed his return, he could begin to abuse the other servants. He no longer felt any accountability toward his lord or the other servants, so he thought that he was autonomous and actually began to act as the lord of the other servants. He moved from leader to the usurped role of abuser.

This is an example of the false teacher of false doctrines, who has no accountability to the Lord in their mind, abuses their parishioners through the bully pulpit, and uses their ministry to create more and more wealth for themselves.

Says in his heart,” EIPON EN HO KARDIA, means in the mentality of his soul, the right lobe of his soul he is thinking evil thoughts or devising evil plans. This is a picture of the evil thoughts a man can have.

1) The first evil thought is that “My master (KURIOS) will be a long time (CHRONIZO, to delay, linger, or stay somewhere a long time) in coming (ERCHOMAI).” As such, he does not anticipate the Lord’s return that leads him to focus on self rather than on God or others.

This speaks of the mental attitude sins in this man’s thinking. Rather than being faithful and sensible, he is thinking in terms of sin. This is the person who is not looking for the return of the Lord at His 2nd Coming, because they did not come to know Him after His 1st Advent. In this parable, the wicked servant does not believe the Lord will return and is not looking forward to it. Therefore, they are not living faithfully and sensibly unto the Lord, as they are not trusting in Him for their logistical grace blessings in time, nor walking faithfully knowing the Lord will also provide for them in the eternal state.

Yet, for the positive believer, they know and are anxiously waiting for the Lord’s return, Heb 10:37, “For yet in a very little while, He who is coming will come, and will not delay.”

2) The first evil thought leads to a second, which results in sinful action, “begins to beat the slaves, both men and women.” This shows that one mental attitude sin leads to another that leads to verbal and overt sins. This is the formula for compound sinning.

In this analogy, “begins to beat,” ARCHO TUPTO, (beat, smite, strike, sting, or wound), represents this steward as taking advantage of others, even those that have been placed under their charge. As such, this evil servant begins to bully and abuse his fellow servants. This beating can be verbal assaults with verbal abuse that wound the conscience of another, or some kind of physical abuse that the evil steward perpetrates on the other slaves.

Luke first used TUPTO in chapter 6:29. As such, our verse portrays the opposite of the faithful steward who instead of handing out a beating to others, is willing to take one from others.

Luke 6:29, “Whoever hits you on the cheek, offer him the other also…” Although this is a picture of humility and patience, it is a greater picture of the justice of God wrapped in His love that the steward of God is to emulate. It is the image of one person who hits another. As the Scriptures tell us, the justice of God is “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth,” Ex 21:24; Lev 24:20; Deut 19:21; Mat 5:38. Yet, our Lord tells us to not enact this justice on others and instead take the just punishment they deserve onto ourselves by offering them the other cheek. This shows the one who struck you the justice and love that God has towards them when He took on their sins upon the Cross. We all, as sinners, deserve the just punishment of our sins, but instead of enacting that just punishment on us, Jesus took that judgment upon Himself instead. This shows others the love of God while maintaining His justice in dealing with sin. As a faithful steward, we are to demonstrate the same love and justice towards others, so that they can come to know the Love and Justice of God for salvation. That is why we are to offer the other cheek. Therefore, the good steward cares for and provides for others, “their rations,” while the evil steward abuses them and takes advantage of them for their own benefit.

3) The third evil thought is of gluttony, which leads to three actions that demonstrate the sinfulness of this steward, “eat, drink, and get drunk.” It reminds us of the foolish farmer in vs. 19, who said to himself, “you have many goods laid up for many years to come; take your ease, eat, drink and be merry.” This was contrasted with the Lord’s instruction to not worry about what we will eat and drink in vs. 22, 29.

Here, it represents the arrogant steward who is not anticipating the return of his lord and instead lives life for himself; he lives it up, as it were. “Eat, ESTHINO, drink, PINO, and get drunk, METHUSKOMAI,” speak to the excessiveness of life for the one who is without thought or care about the Lord and their relationship with Him. METHUSKOMAI is the passive form of METHUSKO and is related to METHUO, “to drink to intoxication.” It is only used here and in Eph 5:18; 1 Thes 5:7.

Eph 5:18, “And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit.”

Both here and in 1 Thes 5:7, it is used as a warning not to live a wasteful lifestyle (ASOTIA – dissipation), especially in the light of the imminent return of Christ. Cf. Luke 21:34.

Luke 21:34, “Be on guard, so that your hearts will not be weighted down with dissipation and drunkenness and the worries of life, and that day will not come on you suddenly like a trap.”

Therefore, these three examples speak to the sinful / wasteful lifestyle of the unbeliever who is not waiting for the imminent return of the Lord. If someone decides that the Lord may not return today or soon, then they start living for themselves. Yet, there are consequences for the unbeliever with this type of mental attitude and lifestyle, as seen in the next few verses.

Vs. 46,

Luke 12:46, “The master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not know, and will cut him in pieces, and assign him a place with the unbelievers.”

Jesus speaks of His 2nd Advent when He says, “the master will come,” using the Future, Active, Indicative of the Verb HEKO that means, “have come or be present.” So, we could say “He will have come” or “He will be present.” It is reminiscent of the OT “Day of the Lord,” and is used for The Day of the Lord that will come in 2 Peter 3:10, as will Jesus Himself come, 1 John 5:20, and ultimately the end of this age will come, Mat 24:14.

For the unbeliever, the coming of our Lord will occur “when he does not expect him,” which uses the negative Participle OUK with the Present, Active, Indicative of the Verb PROSDOKAO, προσδοκάω that means, “does not wait for, look for, anticipate, or expect.” It is used in the Gospel’s predominately for the “expected one” being the Messiah, which Jesus was. Here, the unbeliever will not be expecting the 2nd Coming of our Lord and will be caught by surprise, as now their judgment will follow. In their self-absorbed lifestyle, they will not be “tuned in” to the promises of the Lord’s return and will be caught by surprise when He does.

Interestingly, it is said here that the master will come on a “day,” HEMERA, when the unbeliever does expect, and an “hour,” HORA, he will “not know” OUK GINOSKO. This gives us a clue that the unbeliever of Tribulation will not know the day and hour the Lord will return, but in contrast the believer will know the day and hour and should be expecting Him; just as we should be expecting Him to return for the Church imminently.

Next, Jesus speaks of the judgment the unfaithful / unbelieving slave will receive. It also tells us that Jesus, as the Master / Lord of the slave, will do this judging. The judgment here is twofold: 1) “will cut him in pieces,” 2) “assign him a place with the unbelievers.”

“Will cut him in pieces,” is the Future, Active, Indicative of the Verb DICHOTOMEO, διχοτομέω that means, “cut in two” It is only used in this narrative here, and in Mat 24:51. DICHOTOMEO in classical Greek is used for the ancient method of punishment by “cutting into pieces, sawing in two, or dismembering,” a convicted and condemned person. It was a punishment prevalent among ancient nations, 2 Sam 12:31; Dan 2:5; 3:29; Heb 11:37. With the context of our passage, some think it is figuratively used for “severe scourging or flogging.” Nevertheless, this definite punishment is part of the drapery of this parable, and does not necessarily indicate the exact nature of the punishment which will be inflicted upon the wicked. As such, it does indicate that the servant was killed by the returning lord and placed with the lot of the unbelievers. It is clear from the reference to “unbelievers” that the servant really does suffer being cut off from God.

Assign him a place with the unbelievers,” uses the Future, Active, Indicative of the Verb TITHEMI that means “put or place,” with the Noun MEROS that means “portion, piece, or allotment,” and the pronominal use of the Adjective APISTOS that is translated, “unbeliever, unfaithful, or incredulous.” The placement would be first in Hades, the temporary holding place of unbelievers, but ultimately the Eternal Lake of Fire.

APISTOS, used as a substantive for “unbeliever(s),” is used to contrast the faithful, Luke 12:46; John 20:27; 1 Cor 14:22ff. As unbelievers, they stand in danger of God’s judgment, Rev 21:8.

Rev 21:8, “But for the cowardly and unbelieving and abominable and murderers and immoral persons and sorcerers and idolaters and all liars, their part will be in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.”

Paul equated their condition with “blinded minds,” 2 Cor 4:4, cf. Isa 6:9-10; Mat 13:13ff.; Acts 28:26, as “unbelievers” actively deny God and reject the truth, Titus 1:15-16.

Titus 1:15-16, “To the pure, all things are pure; but to those who are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure, but both their mind and their conscience are defiled. 16They profess to know God, but by their deeds they deny Him, being detestable and disobedient and worthless for any good deed.”

As we stated previously, in the context of our Lord’s discourse and parable, he is contrasting the disciples with the Pharisees who are also teachers of God’s Word; “stewards.” Yet, as we know, many of the Pharisees, Scribes, and Sadducees, were unbelievers because they rejected Jesus as their Savior / King / Messiah. Therefore, Jesus is speaking of the severity of the just punishment these stewards, who are unbelievers and unfaithful, will receive upon Christ’s 2nd Coming. They will ultimately be cast into the Eternal Lake of Fire, where all unbelievers will go.

See Hades / Sheol Charts. http://gracedoctrine.org/diagrams-and-maps/

In the parallel passage of Mat 24:51, it has the variation of calling the unbelievers, “hypocrites,” which points to the religious leaders of Jesus’ day, the Pharisees, and speaks of their response to their judgment, “in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Mat 24:51, “And will cut him in pieces and assign him a place with the hypocrites (unbelievers); in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”

This is speaking about unbelievers, as also in Mat 6:2, 5; 8:12; Mark 7:6; Luke 12:56; 13:15.

Mat 8:12, “But the sons of the kingdom will be cast out into the outer darkness; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”

The Bible uses several different phrases to describe the Lake of Fire including; Furnace of Fire, Mat 13:42, 50; Flaming Fire, 2 Thes 1:7-9; Baptism of Fire, Mat 3:11-12; Unquenchable Fire, Mark 9:43, 48; Brimstone, Rev 21:8, Weeping and Gnashing, Mat 8:12; 13:50, Prepared for the Devil, Mat 24:41; Outer Darkness, Mat 8:12; 25:30; Torment forever, Rev 14:10-11.

The nature and characteristics of Hell include:

  1. Hell is a place of unquenchable Fire, Mat 3:12; 13:41-42, Mark 9:43. The fire is literal. The Greek word PUR in Mat 13:42, is also found in Mat 17:15; Luke 17:29. When men developed a material that would not disintegrate in the flame, they selected the Greek word ASBESTOS. This word is used four times in the NT of “unquenchable fire,” Mat 3:12; Mark 9:43, 45; Luke 3:17. From this we understand that unquenchable fire does not destroy the body.
  2. Hell is a place of memory and remorse, Luke 16:19-31.
  3. Hell is a place of thirst, Luke 16:24.
  4. Hell is a place of misery and pain, Rev 14:10-11.
  5. Hell is a place of frustration and anger, Mat 13:42; 24:51.

The greatest teacher/preacher on hell was the Lord Jesus Christ. While He was on earth, He only spoke once about heaven in John 14:2, but He spoke 14 times in the Bible describing hell. In addition, there are 260 chapters in the NT and hell / judgment are either referred to or described some 234 times. If we were on a highway 260 miles long and on the highway there were 234 sign boards warning of danger, surely we would have brains enough to seek another road.

“Weeping and gnashing of teeth,” KLAUTHMOS, “weeping, lamentation, crying bitterly, wailing,” KAI HO BRUGMOS, “grind or gnash,” HO ADOUS, are symbols of extreme suffering and as such, are a description of the suffering of the unbeliever in the Lake of Fire. The term KLAUTHMOS, “weeping” especially signifies the kind of sadness one experiences during times of tragic loss, Mat 2:18; Acts 20:37. “Gnashing of teeth,” suggests powerlessness and despair; at the same time it also implies that anger and wrath are its cause. This suffering for the unbeliever will have no end, Dan 12:2; Mat 3:12; 18:8; 25:46. This phrase is also used in Mat 8:12; 13:42, 50; 22:13; 24:51; 25:30; Luke 13:28.

Mat 13:42, “And will throw them into the furnace of fire (the Eternal Lake of Fire); in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Mat 13:50, “And will throw them into the furnace of fire (the Eternal Lake of Fire); in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”

Some of these verses also use another figurative term for the Lake of Fire, i.e., “the outer darkness.” The “outer darkness,” EXOTEROS SKOTOS is used in Mat 8:12; 22:13; 25:30; cf. Luke 13:28; Amos 5:18-19.

Outer,” is the Adjective, EXOTEROS, used in a superlative sense in the NT to mean, “farthest or extreme.” It is the farthest point away from the presence of God and His Kingdom.

Mat 22:13-14, “Then the king said to the servants, ‘Bind him hand and foot, and throw him into the outer darkness; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 14For many are called, but few are chosen.”

Mat 25:30, “Throw out the worthless slave into the outer darkness; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”

Luke 13:28, “In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth when you see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God, but yourselves being thrown out.” 

Amos 5:18-19, “Alas, you who are longing for the day of the LORD, for what purpose will the day of the LORD be to you? It will be darkness and not light; 19As when a man flees from a lion and a bear meets him, or goes home, leans his hand against the wall and a snake bites him.”

It describes the Lake of Fire as the eternal holding place of all unbelievers. Cf. 1 Sam 2:9; Job 10:22; 15:23, 30; 18:18; 20:26; Isa 8:22; 2 Peter 2:4, 17; Rev 16:10.

1 Sam 2:9, “He keeps the feet of His godly ones, but the wicked ones are silenced in darkness; for not by might shall a man prevail.”

Isa 8:22, “Then they will look to the earth, and behold, distress and darkness, the gloom of anguish; and they will be driven away into darkness.”

Everything outside of the kingdom of God is darkness, for God is light, 1 John 1:5. As a symbol of judgment, darkness has a literal aspect, cf. Jude 13; 2 Peter 2:17.

2 Peter 2:17, “These are springs without water and mists driven by a storm, for whom the black darkness has been reserved.”

Yet, the faithful/believing servant will be a part of the Kingdom of God and enjoy it for all of eternity.

Therefore, we understand the unfaithful / unbelieving servant will receive severe punishment at the Second Coming of our Lord. This begins with the 2nd Advent where all unbelievers, Jew and Gentile, will be cast into Hades. Then after the Millennial Reign of Jesus Christ, they will stand before Jesus at the Great White Throne Judgment where they will be judged and sentenced to the Eternal Lake of Fire. The description of the severity of the punishment for rejecting Jesus as their Savior/ Messiah / King, is given in the following verses.

From the time of the cross there are seven major judgments in history:

1. At the Cross, the first judgment, Christ was judged for us. That is the basis of eternal salvation, “Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and thou shalt be saved.”

2. The second judgment occurs in time and that judgment is rebound, 1 John 1:9. The believer rebounds for cleansing, 1 Cor 11:31.

3. The third judgment in history takes place after the Rapture of the Church and it has to do with the believer; the BEMA Seat Judgment of the believer’s works, the production of Divine Good, 1 Cor 3:10-15; 2 Cor 5:10.

4. When Christ returns to the earth, Second Advent, we have the judgment of living Gentiles. We get this in the last half of Matthew 24.

5. The judgment of living Jews, Ezek 20. (Judgments four and five constitute the Baptism of Fire)

6. The Millennial reign of Christ, 1,000 years, at the end of which is the judgment of fallen angels, Rev 20:7-10.

7. The Great White Throne or the last judgment for all unbelievers since the beginning of time. This occurs at the end of the Millennium, Rev 20:11-15.

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If you would like more information on this subject, you may watch/listen to lesson:

#20-065, 20-066, 20-067

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A PERSONAL NOTE FOR YOU

If you have never accepted Jesus Christ as your Lord and Savior, I am here to tell you that Jesus loves you. He loves you so much that He gave His life for you. God the Father also loves you. He loves you so much that He gave His only Son for you by sending Him to the Cross. At the Cross Jesus died in your place. Taking upon Himself all of your sins and all of my sins. He was judged for our sins and paid the price for our sins. Therefore, our sins will never be held against us.

Right where you are, you now have the opportunity to make the greatest decision in your life. To accept the free gift of salvation and eternal life by truly believing that Jesus Christ died for your sins and was raised on the third day as the proof of the promise of eternal life.

So right now, you can pause and reflect on what Christ has done for you and say to the Father:

“Yes Father, I believe that Your Son, Jesus Christ,
died on the cross for the forgiveness of my sins.”

If you have done that, I welcome you to the eternal Family of God!

 

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