Vol. 18, No. 48 – December 22, 2019
Outline of the Book:
I. Preface: The Method and Purpose of Writing, Luke 1:1-4.
II. The Identification of the Son of Man with Men, Luke 1:5-4:13.
III. The Ministry of the Son of Man to Men, Luke 4:14-9:50.
IV. The Repudiation of the Son of Man by Men, Luke 9:51-19:27.
A. Rejection by Samaritans, Luke 9:51-56.
B. Rejection by Worldly Men, Luke 9:57-62.
C. Commissioning of the Seventy, Luke 10:1-24.
1. Instruction for ministry, vs. 1-11.
2. Warning of Judgment for those who reject the Gospel, vs. 12-16.
3. Lessons on humility in victory, vs. 17-20.
4. Praise to the Father for victory, vs. 21-22.
5. The blessing of being in Christ presence, vs. 23-24
D. Rejection by a Lawyer, (Parable of the Good Samaritan), Luke 10:25-37.
1. The Lawyer’s self-righteous arrogance, vs. 25-29.
2. An object lesson of true righteousness, the Good Samaritan, vs. 30-37.
E. Reception at Bethany, (Martha’s protest), Luke 10:38-42.
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IV. The Repudiation of the Son of Man by Men, Luke 9:51-19:27.
C. Commissioning of the Seventy, Luke 10:1-24.
1. Instruction for ministry, vs. 1-11.
Luke 10:1, “Now after this the Lord appointed seventy others, and sent them in pairs ahead of Him to every city and place where He Himself was going to come.”
Only Luke records this mission of sending out seventy disciples to evangelize and heal. Here, Jesus “appointed” them that uses the Verb ANADEIKNUMI, ἀναδείκνυμι that means, “show clearly, appoint, or announce.” It is only used here and in Acts 1:24. It is the emphatic use of the root word DEIKNUMI that suggests some kind of a public sign or proclamation and notification of someone being “designated or “appointed.” It is taken from the political sphere and has the character of a public and official action. Here, it is used to mark out or appoint to an office by some outward sign. We could say, He “ordained” them to this office and service.
Some early manuscripts also have DUO with HEBDOMEKONTA for “seventy two,” as also in vs. 17. “This number is used in Luke 10:1,17 as the number of apostles Jesus sent out to minister (there is some question as to whether Jesus sent out 70 or 72 disciples; a discussion of this is found in Metzger, Textual Commentary p.150). This number may have been based on the 70 elders appointed by Moses (the Sanhedrin) in Numbers 11:16 and perhaps was selected because of its connection with the universal number 7 (see hepta ). The fact that there were 70 nations in the rabbinic conception of the world, (Gen 10), suggests that an apostle was sent out for each nation, pointing to the universal scope of the gospel (Rengstorf, “hepta,” Kittel, 2:634). This theme of universalism is strongly emphasized in Luke.” (Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary)
Jesus may have looked forward to the day when the gospel would reach to the ends of the earth, Acts 1:8.
Having “two more” would also be interesting compared with Number 11:26ff., where two men (Eldad and Medad) remained in the camp, while the others went to the Tabernacle to receive the Holy Spirit. Yet, the two that remained also received the Spirit and prophesied.
“Sending them is pairs,” is the same way He sent out the 12, according to Mark’s account, Mark 6:7. They were sent out in pairs for two good reasons: 1) Companionship, 2) the Hebraic legal requirement for two wit-nesses. The second is especially important when we get to vs. 10-18, and the judgment pronounced on the people and city for rejecting the Gospel.
Luke 10:2, “And He was saying to them, “The harvest is plentiful, but the laborers are few; therefore beseech the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into His harvest”.”
In Jesus’ commissioning of these men, He used the word “harvest,” three times, which is the Noun THERISMOS, θερισμός. In secular Greek and the NT, it has a dual usage of both harvesting and reaping. In the NT, it is used as here for winning souls to eternal salvation and for the eschatological judgement that God will bring against the unbeliever, cf. Isa 27:12; Joel 3:13; Mat 13:30, 39; Rev 14:14-16. So here, Jesus is sending out these disciples to evangelize and win souls to eternal salvation, yet, those who reject their message will receive a reaping at the Lord’s Second Advent.
In the harvest or reaping, Jesus is Lord, as He also has the title “Lord of the Harvest.” It is by His Sovereignty and Omnipotence, coupled with His righteousness and Justice that provides this Divine royal title and responsibility. In addition, this freed these laborers from the burden of success. By calling Himself the “Lord of the Harvest,” He reminded the laborers that the harvest, or lack thereof, belonged to Him, not to the laborer. That helps the workers maintain a healthy perspective. The seventy did not need to worry about whether their efforts would succeed or not. God is responsible for the harvest; His workers are responsible to labor faithfully.
Our Lord states that “the harvest is great but the laborers (ERGATES) are few,” this is the principle that although there are many believers, only a few will fulfill God’s plan for their lives in the work of the Gospel of the Kingdom of God. The problem is not that there is no harvest. The problem is that there are too few laborers, too few Christians doing the work of telling people about Jesus.
Then our Lord tells us to “beseech” DEOMAI, “beg, pray, beseech, or request,” Him to “send out laborers into His harvest,” EKBALLO EGRATES EIS AUTOS HO THERISMOS. Therefore, we should be requesting of the Lord through our prayers that He send out missionaries, evangelist, witnesses, etc., to those lost and dying in this world, so that they can receive the gospel of Jesus Christ and receive salvation. In addition, we should expect to be a part of the answer to that prayer. The godly man answers the call of God with “Here am I,” signifying his willingness to obey God’s command. A host of men and women have answered that call.
And remember, you do not have to be an expert at theology to be a good witness or evangelist. All you need is to have faith like a child, trusting the Lord, unworried about what you do not know but really consumed with what you do know, telling others in the power that comes from prayer.
Therefore, at the time of our Lord’s harvesting and reaping, many will be entered into the Kingdom of God, and all will be without excuse.
Luke 10:3, “Go; behold, I send you out as lambs in the midst of wolves.”
Mat 10:16, records this in the sending out of the 12 disciples in their first missionary journey. This tells us that there comes a time when the believer must put into action his deepest beliefs and go do the work of the Lord.
Here, we see that those who do step out to proclaim the Kingdom of God do so as “lambs,” AREN, which is only used here in the NT. This is one of three NT words for “lamb.” The more common word is ARNION, diminutive of AREN that means, “little lamb,” and the word AMNOS, John 1:29, 36; Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 1:19.
The lamb is a helpless animal that needs everything provided for it. That is why God gives us His power and authority, and provisions, as we go out into the world. It was also a key animal in the sacrificial worship of God. So, being a lamb is part of our self-sacrificial service to God.
This is contrasted with “wolves,” the plural of LUKOS, used also in Mat 7:15; 10:16; John 10:12 (2x); Acts 20:29. It is used six times in the NT, (the number of man), in the image of wolves as wicked opponents of God’s flock; the sheep. As such, it is used for those that are against God, His plan of salvation, and those who proclaim the Kingdom of God; His workers.
Mat 7:15, “Beware of the false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravenous wolves.”
In Mat 10:17-18, it describes the persecution the “wolves,” vs. 16, will bring to the missionary lambs, “But beware of men, for they will hand you over to the courts and scourge you in their synagogues; 18and you will even be brought before governors and kings for My sake, as a testimony to them and to the Gentiles.”
John 10:12, “He who is a hired hand, and not a shepherd, who is not the owner of the sheep, sees the wolf coming, and leaves the sheep and flees, and the wolf snatches them and scatters them.”
Acts 20:29-30, “I know that after my departure savage wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock; 30and from among your own selves men will arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them.”
In order to live successfully as a lamb among wolves, we are to be “harmless as a dove yet wise as a serpent,” Mat 10:16. The believer is to be in the world, but not of the world.
Vs. 4, is similar to Luke 9:3, and its parallels. It means, do not take any physical / human provisions with you, as God will provide for all of your needs. “No shoes,” means an extra pair. They had one on their feet and were not to carry a second pair.
“Greet no one on the way,” was given so that they would not get sidetracked. Apparently, Jesus had appointed each pair to go to a specific city location. That was their mission, and they needed to get there and do their jobs. If they greeted others along the way, they would have been delayed, and maybe never reach their designated city.
That is a principle for us too, today. When you know that God has a plan or mission for you, do not get sidetracked by doing other things in other places, because it will hinder or nullify your main objective.
Another way of saying this is: if you are a pastor with the gift of teaching, do not do the work of a deacon with the gift of administration, or the work of others that have the gift of helps, evangelism, etc., or vice versa. Keep focused on the gift, ministry, and effect God given to you, and do your best at it. If we try to do everyone else’s job, we will fail in our own job, and not do the job as God has designed it for those other jobs too. A Quarterback cannot be a lineman. A lineman cannot be a receiver, etc., etc. If we try to do the job God has designed others to do, there will be failure in the long run.
Vs. 5, is similar to Luke 9:4, but then adds vs. 6-9, to explain what they are to do when they are welcomed with positive volition.
First, they greet their potential hosts with “peace,” EIRENE, which is equivalent to the Hebrew SHALOM. Then in vs. 6, if the head of the house returned their SHALOM with SHALOM, it indicated positive volition in that home to the Gospel, that is, they were receptive to the Divine message, and they were to remain at that home throughout their stay in that city. But, if the head of the house DID NOT receive them with a returning SHALOM, it meant negative volition towards the Gospel and they should move on to the next house. That is what “it will return to you,” means. You receive back your SHALOM, so that you can give it to some other home.
Interestingly, as Jesus is the “Lord of the Harvest,” he is also the “Prince of Peace,” Isa 9:6, and salvation through faith in the Gospel of Jesus, brings true peace to those who believe.
In vs. 7, if a home has positive volition, they were to stay at that house throughout their visit to that city, “eating and drinking whatever they gave them.” This was God’s provision for His disciples provided through those with positive volition. This is how God works. He knows who will be positive towards His plan and through them provides for the “workers/laborers,” (i.e., preachers and teachers of His Word / The Gospel of His Kingdom).
In the second half of the verse we have, “For the laborer is worthy of his wages.” This is also stated in the Mat 10:10, for the 12 disciples on their first mission, and in 1 Cor 9:3-14; 1 Tim 5:17-18; 3 John 1:5-8.
1 Tim 5:17-18, “The elders who rule well are to be considered worthy of double honor, especially those who work hard at preaching and teaching. 18For the Scripture says, “YOU SHALL NOT MUZZLE THE OX WHILE HE IS THRESHING,” and “The laborer is worthy of his wages”.”
1 Cor 9:14, “So also the Lord directed those who proclaim the gospel to get their living from the gospel.”
1 Tim 5:18 and 1 Cor 9:9, borrow a quote from Deut 25:4, to make the point that the laborer, (preacher or teacher of Bible Doctrine), should earn their living by those who receive their teaching. “The room and food the disciples received while proclaiming the good news of the Kingdom were to be their payment. This would not be charity, but deserved compensation.” (Complete Biblical Library Commentary.)
Therefore, those with positive volition toward God and His Word should be providing fully for the Pastor, Evangelist, and Missionary, so that they can focus fully on preaching and teaching the Word of God without hindrance and distraction. If the “laborer” of the Lord has to labor inside of Satan’s cosmic system to provide for himself and his family, the wolf will overrun the lamb, and the entire flock will be slaughtered. In fact, as Paul stated in his letter to Timothy, the preacher and teacher “are to be considered worthy of double honor.” In other words, they should be abundantly provided for, so that there never is a concern about their provisions for tomorrow or the next day or the next day. They should be fully relieved of any concern for their provisions, so that they can fully focus on their job of studying and teaching the Word of God to the flock.
In addition, for the one who receives the Word, they should never view the preacher as a charity case or their offerings as charity. It should be viewed as deserved compensation in thanks and honor of what the preacher has provided, which truly is the most valuable commodity or thing in this world.
Finally, “many people think, “The church only wants my money.” Believe me, we do not want your money. That is too little a sum in light of eternity. What we want is your soul, and there is nothing you can give in exchange for your soul. The gospel is about whether you spend eternity in hell or heaven, in condemnation or in love. Don’t give your money to a church if that’s a concern for you. But do give your heart, soul, and life to Christ. Everything else will follow. We do not want what you have; we want you to have our Savior.” (Christ-Centered Exposition)
Our Lord also instructed them, “do not keep moving from house to house.” This is the principle of not hoarding resources from those who are positive towards God and His Word. God knows that some could easily take advantage of the generosity of those with positive volition, so our Lord gives this instruction to not be greedy and take advantage of others. God will provide the worker with what he needs to get the job done. But the worker is not to hoard resources for himself or take advantage of those who have a heart for giving. This also carries the principle of the perception of others. If the disciple moved from house to house, the people of that city might be skeptical as to what their true motive was. The disciple may also get a bad reputation for greed or lust, or swindling. Therefore, to protect the Word of God from being debased, the preacher and teacher must act honorably, especially when money or finances are involved.
In vs. 8, we have the principles of trusting in God for your provisions and being satisfied with them, “Whatever city you enter and they receive you, eat what is set before you.” This also includes the principle of showing gratitude and graciousness for what others provide you. When we are satisfied with what God has provided through others, we will be grateful to God and the provider, and we will be gracious in that we will not complain and want more or something else. Being content with what you have been given leads to many other forms of Divine good production and blessings for you and your host.
In vs. 9, we have the principle of reciprocation by performing divine good works to those who have positive volition, “heal (THERAPEUO) those in it who are sick (ASTHENES), and say to them, “The kingdom of God has come near to you”.” In each city, the disciples were to use their delegated power and authority to reverse the physical effects of sin and evil. And when performing a healing miracle, they were to announce that the miracle was just a preview of the Messiah’s full reign.
So, in the second half, we see the principle of preaching the gospel to those who have positive volition along with the message of reassurance of their salvation, especially when we compare the last half of vs. 11, that speaks to those with negative volition; those who rejected the disciples message. In this verse it means to assure them of their eternal security, as “the kingdom of God has come near to you.” It means that they have heard the gospel and received the gospel. And with the sealing of the Holy Spirit, 2 Cor 1:22; Eph 1:13; 4:30, they cannot lose their salvation.
Eph 1:13, “In Him, you also, after listening to the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation—having also believed, you were sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise.” God does not break His promises; therefore, the believer in the Gospel of Jesus Christ is eternally saved and cannot lose his / her salvation.
That is eternal security, and these disciples are to share the doctrine of eternal security with those who receive them and their message of the Kingdom of God.
Vs. 10-11, are similar to Luke 9:5 and its parallels in Mat 10:14 and Mark 6:11; cf. Acts 13:51. We noted this “protest” in Luke 9:5.
Luke 10:10-11, “But whatever city you enter and they do not receive you, go out into its streets and say, “11Even the dust of your city which clings to our feet we wipe off in protest against you; yet be sure of this, that the kingdom of God has come near”.”
“Streets,” is the Adjective PLATEIA, πλατεῖα that means, “street or wide road,” it is used for the entrance of the city where a lot of deals went on, including legal matters and marketing. Therefore, this would be a public forum indicating the judgment against its people for “not receiving,” ME DECHOMAI, (i.e., rejecting), the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
Next, we have another excellent principle regarding evangelism that is multifaceted. “Dust,” is the Noun KONIORTOS, κονιορτός that was also used in Luke 9:5. It represents the peoples’ rejection of the gospel and that which defiles someone. Therefore, it represents unbelief and sin.
“Clings” is the Verb KOLLAO, κολλάω that means, “join, cling, cleave to, or join oneself to.” It is the word also used for marriage, Mat 19:5, as “the two become one,” as the dust clings to their “feet,” POUS. So here, it means that sin and unbelief are one with this person.
To show the negative volition of these people, the disciples were to “wipe off” their dust (i.e., unbelief and sin), which uses the verb APOMASSO, ἀπομάσσω that is only used here in the NT; another of Luke’s hapaxlegomenas, cf. Acts 13:50-51. Therefore, this protest means the disciple is NOT joining in with their unbelief and sin and is in fact rejecting it. He is rejecting the rejecters and their rejection. Yet, even this action was a further call to repentance, as when a public display was made, all became conscious of the rebuke and judgment. Then, knowing of the rebuke and judgment, it is hoped that the recipient would repent and believe.
This is similar to the mandates in the NT, for church discipline upon an unrepentant member of the local assembly. It is not done out of hate, vilification, or for punishment sake, but out of love with the hopes of repentance! We too sometimes need to protest against those who are unrepentant towards the gospel of Jesus Christ and His Word. Yet, we do it out of love with the hopes of salvation. Unfortunately, many times the recipient does not view it that way and responds negatively. Nevertheless, we are to do our jobs and remember they are not rejecting us but the Lord and His Word. Finally, your protest will be a witness for the prosecution against them in the eternal state, as we will see in vs. 12-16. Therefore, this was a symbol of the people’s rejection of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. And, those who rejected the apostles who were bringing Christ’s message were acting like heathens and would be held accountable in the Day of Judgment.
As we also previously noted, this was also for the Apostles psyche, in that they were not to take the rejection personally. As such, the people were not rejecting them but the Gospel of Jesus Christ and therefore God and His Plan for their salvation. Jesus used the image to encourage the 12 earlier and the 70 / 72 now, to put rejection behind them and to pursue their cause wherever opportunities arose. So, it was an ominous sign to the rejecting people and an encouraging counsel to the Apostles.
Finally, the disciples were to remind the people that “the kingdom of God has come near.” In other words, they had the opportunity to receive the salvation message along with eternal salvation, but rejected it. Therefore, they will be without excuse on the Day of Judgment, which our Lord explains further in vs. 12-15. This would be the two witnesses against them in the Day of Judgment.
“Those who accept Christ not only enter the kingdom of God but the Kingdom enters them. God’s kingdom is not so much a locale as it is a jurisdiction in the hearts of men. That the people rejected the message did not alter the fact that God was near. In rejecting the messengers the people were not ridding themselves of the consequences of their actions. As the next verse states, Jesus would give more tolerance to a wicked city that had not heard this message. The people who hear His message and reject it are more guilty than those who populated Sodom.” (Complete Biblical Library Commentary.)
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If you would like more information on this subject, you may watch/listen to lesson:
#19-135 & 19-136 & 19-137
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A PERSONAL NOTE FOR YOU
If you have never accepted Jesus Christ as your Lord and Savior, I am here to tell you that Jesus loves you. He loves you so much that He gave His life for you. God the Father also loves you. He loves you so much that He gave His only Son for you by sending Him to the Cross. At the Cross Jesus died in your place. Taking upon Himself all of your sins and all of my sins. He was judged for our sins and paid the price for our sins. Therefore, our sins will never be held against us.
Right where you are, you now have the opportunity to make the greatest decision in your life. To accept the free gift of salvation and eternal life by truly believing that Jesus Christ died for your sins and was raised on the third day as the proof of the promise of eternal life.
So right now, you can pause and reflect on what Christ has done for you and say to the Father:
“Yes Father, I believe that Your Son, Jesus Christ,
died on the cross for the forgiveness of my sins.”
If you have done that, I welcome you to the eternal Family of God!