Gospel of Luke ~ Chapter 6 ~ (Part 2) Verses 17-49

Luke 6 Part 2 vs 15-49Gospel of Luke 
Chapter 6
Verses 17-49

C. The Associates of His Ministry, Luke 6:12-49.

2. The characteristics of disciples, (The Great Sermon), Luke 6:17-49.

a. Vs. 20-26, Blessings and Woes / Warnings – The Beatitudes and Anti-Beatitudes.

b. Vs. 27-36, Principles of Loving.

c. Vs. 37-45, Principles of Forgiving.

d. Vs. 46-49, Principles of Obeying

After our Lord called and elected the 12 Apostles for His ministry here on earth, He then came down from the mountain and addressed those that had come to hear Him from many regions around Israel. The address He gave is called the “Sermon on the Plain,” (from the Greek in vs. 17, PEDINOS, “level, flat, or plain”), or the “Great Sermon.” It is very similar to but shorter than the Sermon on the Mount that is recorded in Matthew’s gospel, Mat 5-7. This is the first Preaching/Sermon of Jesus to occur in the Gospel of Luke. It contains blessings and woes, Jesus’ love commands, the need to inculcate nonjudgmental attitude towards others, sharing of possessions, etc.

In vs. 17, the traditional site of this sermon is the Horns of Hattin that are twin peaks by the road between Tiberias and Nazareth. Another possible site could be a hill near Tabgha, 3 miles south of Capernaum at the edge of the Plain of Gennesaret. Given the areas this great crowd came from, it implies it was an audience of both Jews and Gentiles.

We can outline this sermon as follows:

a. Vs. 20-26, Blessings and Woes / Warnings – The beatitudes and anti-beatitudes.

b. Vs. 27-36, Principles of Loving.

c. Vs. 37-45, Principles of Forgiving.

d. Vs. 46-49, Principles of Obeying

In vs. 18, we have similar words that we have noted previously regarding those coming to “hear,” AKOUO, Jesus’ teachings and be “healed,” IAOMAI, Luke 5:17, from their “diseases,” NOSOS, Luke 4:40. Here, we also see for the first time “troubled” by “unclean spirits.” “Troubled,” is the Present, Middle, Participle of the Verb ENOCHLEO, ἐνοχλέω that means, “annoy, harass, disturb, or trouble.” It is only used here and in Hebrews 12:15. It is used to describe mental or emotional turmoil. In this case, it is harassment by “unclean,” AKATHARTOS, “spirits,” PNEUMA, that cause mental anguish. We know these to be evil spirits or demons, i.e., fallen angels. This may indicate demonic possession or just demonic influence, the former is more likely. Luke also notes they “were being cured,” THERAPEUO, θεραπεύω, “served, cared for, or healed,” cf. Luke 4:23, 40; 5:15; 6:7.

In vs. 19, we see that the peoples’ excitement, along with their impatience, was getting the better of them, as they “were trying,” ZETEO, to “touch Him,” HAPTO AUTOS, as the “power,” DUNAMIS, of God was going out from Him to “heal all,” IAOMAI, once again with PAS. This crowd realized that simply touching Jesus would restore their bodies. This is like the woman who had been hemorrhaging for 12 years that we will note in Luke 8:43-48.

Interestingly, I am sure not all of these people were believers or even later became believers, yet the grace and love of God, the compassion of Jesus, healed them all. This is an image of the Cross of Jesus Christ that is available for the healing of all people from their sins. The teaching which follows outlines the principles of living inside the Kingdom of God.

a. Vs. 20-26, Blessings and Woes or Warnings, Luke’s Beatitudes and Anti-Beatitudes.

1) The Blessings, the Beatitudes, vs. 20-23.

a) 20b, “Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God.”

b) 21a, “Blessed are you who hunger now, for you shall be satisfied.”

c) 21b, “Blessed are you who weep now, for you shall laugh.”

d) 22-23, “Blessed are you when men hate you, and ostracize you, and insult you, and scorn your name as evil, for the sake of the Son of Man. 23Be glad in that day and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven. For in the same way their fathers used to treat the prophets.”

2) The Woes / Warnings, anti-Beatitudes, vs. 24-26.

In Matthew’s Sermon on the Mount, we have 9 blessings or Beatitudes, Mat 5:3-12:

1) Vs. 3, “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”

2) Vs. 4, “Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.”

3) Vs. 5, “Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth.”

4) Vs. 6, “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.”

5) Vs. 7, “Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy.”

6) Vs. 8, “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.”

7) Vs. 9, “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.”

8) Vs. 10, “Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”

9) Vs. 11-12, “Blessed are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me. 12Rejoice and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great; for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.”

1) In Luke 6:20-23, we have 4 Blessings or Beatitudes:

“Blessed,” is the Greek noun MAKARIOS that means, “blessed, fortunate, or happy.” All three definitions are in view. It is a condition of God’s gracious blessings that results in receiving something from God, i.e., being fortunate to receive them, which results in an emotional state of being happy on the inside with the outward expression of rejoicing.

a) 20b, “Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God.” This correlates to Matthew’s 1st in vs. 3. Matthew adds “spirit” for the object of this poorness and while Matthew uses “kingdom of heaven,” Luke uses “kingdom of God.” Both use the Adjective PTOCHOS for “poor,” meaning, “poor, oppressed, destitute, pitiful, or beggarly.” Given Matthew’s context of the spiritual life, these are people who recognize they are destitute of a spiritual life because of their sin and recognize they need a Savior.

Those who realize their total depravity and need for a Savior, and accept Jesus Christ as their Savior, will be entered into the kingdom of heaven / God and have an internal inheritance. It tells us that happiness, (the +H of God), comes to those who realize their total depravity and need for a Savior.

“For yours is the kingdom of God,” tells us that the “poor in spirit” are enriched with the fullness of Christ, the full enjoyment of an already possessed inheritance, which inheritance is fully waiting for them in the eternal state, but of which much can be enjoyed now as they live the unique spiritual life, the new resurrection life, of the Church Age.

b) 21a, “Blessed are you who hunger now, for you shall be satisfied.” This correlates to Matthew’s 4th in vs. 6.

Hunger” is the Present, Active, Participle in the Nominative case of the Verb PEINAO, πεινάω that means, “to hunger or be hungry.” It is also used in Mat 5:6, but Matthew adds the context of, “and thirsts for righteousness.” It signifies the strong desire for the Gospel of Jesus Christ and His Word to become Christ-like.

PEINAO means, “to long for something which is necessary for the sustenance of life.” In this case, the sustenance for spiritual life is Christ Jesus. Since the first beatitude was to recognize our spiritual depravity, being poor in spirit, this second beatitude is the continued recognition that you are lacking a spiritual life, coupled with knowing of your lack to gain it by yourself.

Those who recognize they are lacking a spiritual life and because they have no Divine righteousness in them and turn to the only One that can provide it, i.e., Jesus Christ, they will receive the blessing of God of being “satisfied,” the Future, Passive, Indicative of the Verb CHORTAZO, χορτάζω that means, “satisfy, satiate hunger, fill.” Both Matthew and Luke use this word. In other words, we will be filled up with Christ and His righteousness. The hunger we had to live a spiritual life will be made more than abundant for us, so much so, we will be satisfied, content, fulfilled, pleased, and gratified.

Psa 17:15, “As for me, I shall behold Your face in righteousness; I will be satisfied with Your likeness when I awake.”

The one who is hungry finds all of his actions motivated by his hunger. Jesus said He himself is that Bread of Life who appeases the gnawing spiritual hunger of humanity. A person who comes to Christ for spiritual satisfaction will never experience the pangs of this kind of “hunger” again, John 6:35.

John 6:35, “Jesus said to them, ‘I am the bread of life; he who comes to Me will not hunger, and he who believes in Me will never thirst’.”

c) 21b, “Blessed are you who weep now, for you shall laugh.” This somewhat correlates to Matthew’s 2nd in vs. 4.

Weep” is the Verb KLAIO that means, “weep, mourn, lament, cry, or show emotion.” In Matthew’s, “mourn,” is the Verb PENTHEŌ, πενθέω that means, “be sad, lament, grieve, mourn.” These two words are closely associated as noted in Mark 16:10; James 4:9; Rev 18:11, 15, 19. They both have to do with crying or lamenting over the dead, yet this is also a picture of repentance. Therefore, this is the person who understands their spiritual death and changes their attitude about the Christ.

Then we see that happiness comes to those who know they are a sinner and have received Christ for salvation. For those who recognize their spiritual death and receive Christ as Savior, they “will laugh,” the Future, Active, Indicative of the Verb GELAO. It is only used here and in vs. 25. Therefore, those who lament the fact that they are spiritually dead and receive Jesus as their Savior will inherit the Kingdom God and have great joy both now and in the eternal state. This joy will be expressed outwardly in great laughter as they rejoice in their Savior.

Matthew says they will be “comforted,” which is the Future, Passive, Indicative of the Verb PARAKALEO, παρακαλέω that means, “exhorted and encouraged.” Luke tells us the results of this encouragement, which is laughter. It speaks to the peace and contentment we experience while on earth with the promise of ultimate joy in the eternal state, Rev 21:4. It speaks to the inward satisfaction of knowing we are saved that results in the outward expression of rejoicing with laughter.

d) 22, “Blessed are you when men hate you, and ostracize you, and insult you, and scorn your name as evil, for the sake of the Son of Man. 23Be glad in that day and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven. For in the same way their fathers used to treat the prophets.” This correlates to Matthew’s 8th and 9th in vs. 10-12.

In Luke, there are four evils that are done against the believer, “for the sake of the Son of Man.” They are:

i. Hated: MISEO, “hate, detest, abhor, or prefer against.” It means, to dislike intensely, often in a way that evokes feelings of anger, hostility, or animosity; a strong aversion with a feeling of intense hostility towards you. It means, malicious feelings toward you. Cf. John 7:7; 15:18; 17:14; 1 John 3:13.

ii. Ostracized: APHORIZO, “set apart, exclude, to separate from, or to excommunicate.” It means, to banish or exclude you from society or a particular group, either formally or informally. This is when people do not include you in certain events or discussions because of their dislike towards you.

iii. Insulted: ONEIDIZO, “to scold, reproach, or revile.” It means, to say or do something rude or insensitive that offends you or suggests a low opinion of you.

iv. Your name scorned as evil: EKBALLO, “to cast out, drive out, or send out,” with PONERIOS, “evil, bad, wicked,” regarding, “your name,” ONOMA. Scorn means a strong feeling of contempt or disdain toward you. “Your name” adds the fact that they will treat you with contempt and run you down verbally with gossiping and maligning.

John 15:18, “If the world hates you, you know that it has hated Me before it hated you.”

Matthew begins with a general statement of “persecution,” in vs. 10, (DIOKO, to pursue, follow after, press, or persecute), and then gives four types of persecutions:

i. Insults: ONEIDIZO, ὀνειδίζω that means, “to scold, reproach, or revile.”

ii. Persecuted: DIOKO once again, probably with the sense of to drive you out or drive you away from their presence, much like ostracize above, cf. Mat 23:34.

iii. Speaking all kinds of evil against you: EIPON, “speaking,” PONEROS, “painful, serious, grievous, bad, wicked, evil, depraved” things about you.

iv. Telling lies: PSEUDOMAI, “lying and deceiving” others about you or things you have done, mostly to denigrate your relationship with God and Jesus Christ.

As Luke tells us, all of these are the result of having a relationship with Jesus Christ, “for the sake of the Son of Man.” Matthew first says, “for the sake of righteousness,” in vs. 10, and then “because of Me,” in vs. 11. This reminds us that we are behind enemy lines as Royal Priests and Royal Ambassadors for Jesus Christ. It reminds us that our enemy is Satan and his fallen angels as we live inside the Angelic Conflict and that Satan will use people to attack / persecute us in regard to our relationship with Jesus in various ways.

Eph 6:11-12, “Put on the full armor of God, so that you will be able to stand firm against the schemes of the devil. 12For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world forces of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly places.”

These are all forms of persecution first mentally then verbally that leads to physical persecution. It is part of our undeserved suffering that is suffering for blessing as noted in vs. 23.

As a result of underserved suffering, our attitude should be twofold:

1. Be glad in that day: CHAIRO, “rejoice, be glad, welcome it, greet it.” In other words, do not be disheartened when people run you down, but rather embrace it, receive it with joy when it occurs, knowing that you are being persecuted on account of your relationship with Jesus Christ and that you have the enemy quite concerned about your positive impact here on earth. Also remember, they are not criticizing you but our Lord Jesus Christ. In addition, CHAIRO is related to CHARIS, “grace,” therefore we are to rejoice at the grace of God in our lives and take pleasure that the enemy sees us as a threat.

2. Leap for joy: This is one word in the Greek, the Verb SKIRTAO that means, “leap, jump joyously, and gambol.” It is only used by Luke here and previously in Luke 1:41, 44, regarding the babe in womb of Elizabeth, who would be John the Baptist, who leaped in her womb as an extension of her joy when she heard the news of her cousin Mary conceiving the Messiah by means of the Holy Spirit. This is the outward celebration of the inward joy within our souls, cf. Malachi 4. Therefore, combined we should have inward joy, peace, and happiness along with the outward expression of that joy in our lives; rejoicing!

Matthew simply states: Mat 5:12a, “Rejoice (CHAIRO) and be glad (AGALLIAO, “rejoice, be overjoyed, exult”).

Then we are given two reasons for our rejoicing:

  1. Your reward is great in heaven: This speaks of our eternal inheritance and the rewards received at the BEMA seat of Jesus Christ in 1 Cor 3:10-15; Rev 2-3. This is our eschatological rationale: knowing we will be rewarded in the heavenly places.
  2. In the same way their fathers used to treat the prophets: This speaks to the “seen it before,” rationale, our 20/20 hindsight rationale: knowing that there is nothing new under the sun, and if they so persecuted those positive believers who have come before us, they will persecute the positive believer in our day as well.

Matthew states: Mat 5:12b, “… for your reward in heaven is great; for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.”

Therefore, happiness comes to the believer who is faithful while under pressure. This is a reminder of the eternal reward and bliss we have already been promised.

We now turn to the Four Woes/Warnings, a.k.a., the anti-Beatitudes, in verses 24-26.

    2) The Woes / Warnings, anti-Beatitudes, vs. 24-26.

a) Luke 6:24, “But woe to you who are rich, for you are receiving your comfort in full.”

b) Luke 6:25a, “Woe to you who are well-fed now, for you shall be hungry.”

c) Luke 6:25b, “Woe to you who laugh now, for you shall mourn and weep.

d) Luke 6:26, “Woe to you when all men speak well of you, for their fathers used to treat the false prophets in the same way.”

Here, we have four anti-beatitudes that counter the beatitudes Luke just mentioned in vs. 20-23. They line up one for one. Matthew does not have these counterpoints in the Sermon of the Mount.

Upcoming, there will be another listing of “woes” in Luke 11:42-52, regarding Jesus’ warning to the Pharisees and Scribes/Lawyers that Matthew also records in Mat 23:13-29. And, there are the three “woes” in the book of Revelation, cf. Rev 8:13; 9:12; 11:14; 12:12, and the woes regarding Babylon, Rev 18:10, 16, 19. There are also other various woe warnings in the NT, some of which Jesus made, Luke 10:13; 17:1; 22:22.

Luke’s woes/warnings are the anti-type of the beatitudes he just listed. These are directed toward those who are unbelievers and living inside of Satan’s cosmic system, rather than being a believer and living inside the Kingdom of God.

Woe,” is the Greek Interjection, OUAI, οὐαί that means, “Alas, or woe!” It is used 41 times in the NT. It has the concept of judgment, warning, denunciation, grief, and sorrow. Here, it is our Lord’s warning and denunciation, followed by judgment, towards the unbeliever who rejects Jesus as their Messiah. It is an expression of His dismay, regret, and compassion towards the unbeliever. He is expressing disappointment, as well as condemnation for the actions and attitudes of those who will not accept the Kingdom He offers.

a) Luke 6:24, “But woe to you who are rich, for you are receiving your comfort in full.”

This is the counter to the 1st Beatitude in Luke 6:20b, “Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God.”

The 1st anti-Beatitude is being “Rich,” is the Adjective PLOUSIOS that means, “rich or wealthy,” and customarily used to indicate “fullness” of material possessions; affluence, or being rich. As we see in Scripture, many times riches are an impediment to participating in God’s kingdom, Mat 19:23-24; Mark 10:23-25;  Luke 18:24-25; cf. Mat 13:22, and believers are not to put their hope in their wealth, but in God, who “richly” provides them with everything, 1 Tim 6:17; Eph 2:4.

Luke 18:24-25, “And Jesus looked at him and said, ‘How hard it is for those who are wealthy to enter the kingdom of God! 25For it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God’.”

So here, Jesus pronounced “woe” upon those who are rich, whose heart is tied to their possessions, James 2:5ff; 5:1.

James 5:1, “Come now, you rich, weep and howl for your miseries which are coming upon you.”

Rich,” is also used as the headline for the following three woes, as each could be assumed to be characteristics of the worldly rich person.

The 1st anti-Blessing is, “receiving your comfort in full,” compared to the blessing for the positive believer “for yours is the kingdom of God.”

“Receiving in full” is one word in the Greek, the Present, Active, Indicative of the Verb APECHO, ἀπέχω that means, “keep, abstain, to be for, or to have in full.” It is from APO “from,” and ECHO, “to have and hold.” In classical Greek it was a technical term for “having received payment,” (in full). Though Matthew does not use the “woes,” he gave several examples of the rich having received their rewards in full here on earth in Mat 6:2, 5, 16.

Their reward in time is “comfort,” which is the Noun PARAKLESIS, παράκλησις that means, “exhortation, encouragement, consolation, and comfort.” All are in view as we also note in Matthew’s “rewards,” MITHOS. They are being praised and lifted up by men, and having their needs met through Satan’s cosmic system, cf. Mat 6:2, 5, 16.

Mat 6:2, “So when you give to the poor, do not sound a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, so that they may be honored by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full.”

Mat 6:5, “When you pray, you are not to be like the hypocrites; for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and on the street corners so that they may be seen by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full.”

Mat 6:16, “Whenever you fast, do not put on a gloomy face as the hypocrites do, for they neglect their appearance so that they will be noticed by men when they are fasting. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full. “

Therefore, because their comfort was their money, when their lives end and their money is gone, there will be no comfort for them. They will outlive their money, and their money will outlive its usefulness. All that will be left apart from Jesus is woe.

b) Luke 6:25a, “Woe to you who are well-fed now, for you shall be hungry.”

This is the counter to the 2nd Beatitude in Luke 6:21a, “Blessed are you who hunger now, for you shall be satisfied.”

The 2nd anti-Beatitude is being “well-fed,” which is the Perfect, Passive, Participle, in the subject Nominative case of the Verb EMPIMPLEMI, ἐμπίμπλημι that means, “fill or satisfy.” It is only used in Luke 1:53; 6:25; John 6:12; Acts 14:17; Rom 15:24 and can mean, “to fill quite full.” In those uses, it means physical fullness, Luke 1:53, a “satisfied” condition because one has had plenty to eat, Luke 6:25; John 6:12, cf. Acts 14:17. It can also imply a sense of “enjoying something” by having your “fill,” like someone’s company, Rom 15:24.

With this we have the Adjective NUN that means, “now” or “at this or that very time.” In other words, “right now,” but not in the future.

The 2nd anti-Blessing is “shall be hungry,” compared to “shall be satisfied” in 21a. Shall be hungry” is the Future, Active, Indicative of the Verb PEINAO, πεινάω that means, “to be hungry, to hunger, or to long for something which is necessary for the sustenance of life.” It means here, an intense desire for spiritual nourishment; that which is necessary for the continuance of life, i.e., life in heaven / the Kingdom of God that will never be satisfied. They will consistently and eternally long for the “Bread of Life!”

These are the ones who have missed out on God’s sustenance for eternal life through Jesus Christ, Psa 107:9; Luke 1:53; cf. John 6:35.

Luke 1:53, “HE HAS FILLED THE HUNGRY WITH GOOD THINGS; and sent away the rich empty-handed.”

Psa 107:9, “For He has satisfied the thirsty soul, and the hungry soul He has filled with what is good.”

John 6:35, “Jesus said to them, ‘I am the bread of life; he who comes to Me will not hunger, and he who believes in Me will never thirst’.”

Therefore, we see that the “full now” crowd has lived high off the hog. They satisfy their desires now. They have refrigerators full and money to eat out, now. But when judgment comes, they will be hungry. Hell for them will be a constant hungering, never being satisfied, a gnawing in their guts. Their worm will never die. They had it all in this life, yet they will have nothing in the life to come because they did not have Christ. As such, those who gorge themselves with present worldly enjoyments, ignoring the more important spiritual realities, will find themselves left in a state of bitter disappointment and unsatisfied yearning when life’s short day is ended.

c) Luke 6:25b, “Woe to you who laugh now, for you shall mourn and weep.”

This is the counter to the 3rd Beatitude in Luke 6:21b, “Blessed are you who weep now, for you shall laugh.” 

The 3rd anti-Beatitude is “laughing now,” which is the Present, Active, Participle, Nominative of the Verb GELAO with the Adverb NUN once again for “now.” GELAO, γελάω means “laugh,” as we noted in vs. 21. It is only used in these two verses in the NT. As we noted above in the positive beatitude, laughter indicates satisfaction and contentment. In these two verses, it is used first positively for the mirth or merriment resulting from a joyful disposition knowing you have an eternal life in and with Christ, and negatively, as here, in a pejorative sense to mean laughing in time as one lives inside of Satan’s cosmic system despite the seriousness of the situation where they do not have a spiritual life in Christ, which instead ought to call for “mourning and weeping.”

Therefore, the 3rd anti-Blessing is “mourning and weeping.” They both are Verbs in the Future, Active, Indicative. This is the state of emotion they will be in for all of eternity.

Mourn” is PENTHEO. πενθέω that means, “Be sad, lament, grieve, mourn,” which we noted in Matthew’s 2nd Beatitude, Mat 5:4. This is the internal emotion they will feel consistently in the eternal state.

Weep,” is the word we noted in Luke’s 3rd Beatitude, KLAIO, κλαίω that means, “weep, mourn, lament, cry, show emotion.” This is the outward action or expression due to the inward emotion they will constantly perform in the eternal state. Therefore, in the eternal state, they will have both inward sorrow and outward lamenting due to regret for rejecting God’s plan of salvation.

As such, those who are laughing now, will not have the last laugh. In fact, many places in the Bible describe judgment and hell as “weeping and gnashing of teeth,” Mat 8:12; 13:42, 50; 22:13; 24:51; 25:30; Luke 13:28.

Luke 13:28, “In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth when you see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God, but yourselves being thrown out.”

“To live for pleasure and seek after folly and carnal mirth in a scene where there is so much reason to be serious and sober-minded, means to face an eternity of tears and mourning as one realizes the sadness of wasted talents and opportunities.” (H.A. Ironside Expository Commentary – Luke). In the end, they will be sorry they spent their lives laughing in the worldly pleasures apart from Jesus.

d) Luke 6:26a, “Woe to you when all men speak well of you, …”

This is the counter to the 4th Beatitude in Luke 6:22 “Blessed are you when men hate you, and ostracize you, and insult you, and scorn your name as evil, for the sake of the Son of Man.”

The 4th anti-Beatitude is “when all men speak well of you,” using EIPON “to speak or say,” something about you. Here it is speaking “well,” the Adjective KALOS, καλῶς that means, “good, well, correctly, rightly, commendably, or beautifully,” “of or about you.”

This means you have a good reputation from those living inside of Satan’s cosmic system because you are like them and one of them. Yes, we should try to have a good reputation with those outside of the Church, 1 Tim 3:7. But that is speaking about operating in righteousness and not giving the enemy and your OSN an opportunity to lead you astray, Gal 5:13; 6:10; Eph 4:27; Col 4:5; 1 Tim 5:14.

Gal 5:13, “For you were called to freedom, brethren; only do not turn your freedom into an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another.”

Gal 6:10, “So then, while we have opportunity, let us do good to all people, and especially to those who are of the household of the faith.”

Eph 4:27, “And do not give the devil an opportunity.”

Col 4:5, “Conduct yourselves with wisdom toward outsiders, making the most of the opportunity.” 

1 Tim 5:14, “Therefore, I want younger widows to get married, bear children, keep house, and give the enemy no occasion for reproach.”

But, our passage is talking about running in sin with those of this world where they will boast about you and your sinful or unbelieving ways.

The rational for this anti-beatitude is found in vs. 26b, “…for their fathers used to treat the false prophets in the same way.”

This is the counter to the rationale of the beatitude in vs 23b, “… for in the same way their fathers used to treat the true prophets.

This anti-beatitude also does not add, “for the sake of the Son of Man,” since it is addressing unbelievers or even reversionistic believers. It also does not mention any consequence, but we can assume they will be the opposite of the blessings found in vs. 23. Therefore, they will have inner turmoil expressed by outward sadness and grief, along with no inheritance or rewards in the eternal state.

The context of this anti-beatitude is “treat the false prophets,” PSEUDOPROPHETES, ψευδοπροφήτης. It means, those who taught and lived opposed to or counter to God and His Word. Many times, the “false prophet” would simply counterfeit the things or Word of God, by twisting them just enough to make its application false or untrue. They would do so to gain the acceptance and allegiance of the people who apparently would speak favorably about them. Therefore, those who taught counter to God and His Word were held in high regard by unbelievers and reversionistic believers.

The false prophets also included the priests and priestesses of the ancient pagan religions that would tell the people it was ok to worship in the way of their false gods, which would lead people astray from the One true God, and many times keep them from knowing Him for salvation, as they do today, Mat 24:11, 24; 2 Peter 2:1; 1 John 4:1. Even the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Scribes of Jesus’ day were considered by Him and God the Father as false prophets, because they did not teach the truth of salvation to the people of Israel or the world, Mat 7:15. Yet, they spoke falsely and eloquently so that the people would speak favorably about them.

“The people loved inviting preachers and teachers who would tell them all that their itching ears wanted to hear. The true prophets they rejected, but the false prophets they loved. Beware platforms and popularity. Popularity is sometimes evidence of God’s condemnation and a disciple’s unfaithfulness rather than God’s approval or favor.” (Christ-Centered Exposition – Exalting Jesus in Luke.)

Therefore, the wealthy, well-liked person without Jesus is the most doomed person you will ever meet, because as long as they are without Jesus, everything about their life may look wonderful, but He Himself said, “They have no reward. Their future is full of woe.”

In summary, all four of these woes speak of people who appear to enjoy all that the world has to offer, yet there is no life in Christ in their life. They live it up now without Jesus, and receive a warm welcome from all those who also are living without Christ in their lives too. Yet, they are doomed to spiritual and physical poverty, hunger, sorrow, and loneliness in the eternal state, because they rejected Jesus Christ as their Savior. This was the object of the parable our Lord taught in Luke 16:19-31, about the rich man and Lazarus.

Yet, for the positive believer, even though they may suffer for a little while here in time, they will have tremendous blessings in time and especially in the eternal estate including their eternal inheritance and BEMA seat rewards.

luk 6 pt 2 pic 1By way of reminder, the outline of the Great Sermon on the Plain, vs. 20-49:

a. Vs. 20-26, Blessings and Woes / Warnings – The beatitudes and anti-beatitudes.

b. Vs. 27-36, Principles of Loving.

c. Vs. 37-45, Principles of Forgiving.

d. Vs. 46-49, Principles of Obeying

b. Principles of Loving within the Great Sermon on the Plain, vs. 27-36.

1) Love your enemies by doing good to those that hate you, vs. 27.

2). Love by:

i. Blessing those who curse you, vs. 28a.

ii. Praying for those who mistreat you, vs. 28b.

iii. Being longsuffering, vs. 29-30:

i) Continue to offer yourself to serve the one who harms you, 29a.

ii) Offer them greater opportunities for service, 29b.

iii) Be ready to give again and again, vs. 30a.

iv) Do not demand your belongings back, even if taken illicitly, 30b.

3) Love by the principle, “Do unto others,” vs. 31.

4) Love by having impersonal / unconditional mental attitude AGAPE love with the physical expression of that love by producing Divine Good Production actions, both verbal and overt, vs. 32-34.

i. The Goal, vs. 32-35a.

i) Have a mental attitude of love towards all, especially those who hate you or have mistreated you, 32.

ii) Perform physical Divine Good Production, the fruit of the Spirit, by helping the unbeliever or reversionistic believer, 33.

iii) Be a gracious giver / lender, without expectations of repayment or quid pro quo, vs 34.

ii. The Encouragement, vs 35b-d.

i) When you do, you will be blessed in time and eternity by God, 35b.

ii) When you do, you will demonstrate your Royal Family status, 35c.

iii) When you do, you will demonstrate the kindness and grace of God, vs 35d.

iv) When you do, you will be merciful towards the unbeliever and reversionistic believer, just as your heavenly Father is, 36.

Vs. 27a, “But I say to you who hear.”

Interestingly, this discourse begins with what Israel would call the “great SHAMA.” SHAMA in Hebrew means, “hear.” In the opening passage the Greek uses the equivalent, AKOUO in the Present, Active Indicative. The Great SHAMA comes from Deut 6:4, but was introduced by Moses in Deut 5:1, regarding Israel to keep God’s ordinances, the 10 Commandments specifically, which meant to first Love God and then Love each other.

Deut 5:1, “Then Moses summoned all Israel and said to them: “Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordinances which I am speaking today in your hearing, that you may learn them and observe them carefully.”

This is then plainly given in Deut 6:4-9.

Deut 6:4-5, “Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one! 5You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might.”

Therefore, when our Lord Jesus Christ begins the Great Sermon on the Plain with AKOUO, “hear, listen, and learn.” He is reminding the people of God’s great commandments to fist Love God and then to Love their neighbor.

Matthew’s record of the Sermon on the Mount includes similar principles in Mat 5:38-48, that begin with the Aorist, Active, Indicative of AKOUO for “you have heard,” which is a similar calling back to God’s great commandments.

Luke’s record of the Great Plain Sermon teaches how to “love,” AGAPE, in 5 sections:

    1) Love your enemies by doing good to those that hate you, vs. 27.

Vs. 27b, “Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you.”

Enemies,” is the Pronominal use of the Adjective ECHTHROS that means, “hated, hostile; an enemy, the enemy meaning Satan himself,” Cf. Mat 13:39; Eph 6:11; 1 Peter 5:8. It primarily refers to those who oppose God, meaning the unsaved that are “alienated and enemies,” because of their hostile minds and their evil deeds, Col 1:21, as we all were at one time. Notice in the verse prior, Col 1:20, Jesus died to, “Reconcile all things to Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross; through Him, I say, whether things on earth or things in heaven.” Jesus even died for Satan!!!! So too, should we lay down our lives if at all possible it could save an unbeliever.

Hate you,” is the Present, Active, Participle in the Dative case of the Verb MISEO, μισέω that means, “hate, detest, abhor, or prefer against.” This is the mental attitude of the sinner, (unbeliever or reversionistic believer). It is a malicious feeling by someone who may be antagonist towards you. This mental attitude leads to verbal and overt actions that could harm you. It is the opposite of AGAPE Love. Therefore, we are not to imitate the sinner with hate towards others, but instead imitate God by having AGAPE love for all of mankind.

Yet, we are to always keep in mind John 7:7, “The world cannot hate you, but it hates Me because I testify of it, that its deeds are evil.” Those who express hatred towards you are really hating Jesus. Therefore, you should be able to Love them as He did.

Rom 12:20, “But if your enemy is hungry, feed him, and if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in so doing you will heap burning coals on his head.” Cf. Prov 25:21-22.

“Do good,” here is the verb POIEO, “do, make, produce, etc.,” with the Adverb KALOS, καλῶς that means, “good(ly), well, correctly, rightly, useful, noble, commendably, or beautifully.” It also means, “fair treatment” or being “well regarded” by others.

Typically, we would think the word AGATHOS, “good of intrinsic value,” would be used here, but it is not. AGATHOS has a greater connotation of overt actions. But, with KALOS, it correlates to “speaking well of others” in vs. 26 above, and the opposite of “casting insults or saying all kinds of evil against someone,” in vs. 22. Therefore, in our verse, it means to continue to speak well of your enemies and those that hate you. As such, because someone has gossiped, maligned, slandered, lied about you, etc., it does not give you the right to do the same back to them in retaliation or revenge. In fact, you should do the opposite of what they have done to you and speak well of them. In other words, “kill them with kindness,” or in this case “kind words.”

As such, you may be able to refrain from hating your enemy, but that is not enough, according to Jesus’ view. You may be able to put up with your enemies, ignore them, or refuse to retaliate, but these also are not enough. Jesus tells us to “love them,” which begins with a mental attitude that results in actionable items, as we will see below. Therefore, as His followers, we do not have to approve of what our enemies do. We do not even have to admire or like them, but we do have to love them.

This love is more than a vague mental attitude; it is a positive reaction towards them, even if they present a negative action towards you. Love is not love, until it acts.

For example, I remember when I was a child and my father was a Selectman in our home town. There was a certain policy that my father favored that came up and a certain other gentleman vehemently fought against it. One was a republican, the other a democrat. They fought bitterly over the policy and appeared to be enemies. Later that day or night, they ran into each other at a local restaurant and my father cordially greeted him and invited him to sit down and treated him with kindness. Well, as the night wore on, they spoke about many things and by nights end were friends and then went on to be best friends. It was a demonstration of winning a soul, rather than maintaining an enemy. And in fact, a year or so later, my father helped to get him elected also to the board of selectman. Therefore, when we treat others with love, even though they may be an enemy today, tomorrow they could be a close friend or even child of God.

2). Love by:

i. Blessing those who curse you, vs. 28a.

ii.  Praying for those who mistreat you, vs. 28b.

iii. Being longsuffering, vs. 29-30:

i) Continue to offer yourself to serve the one who harms you, 29a.

ii) Offer them greater opportunities for service, 29b.

iii) Be ready to give again and again, vs. 30a.

iv) Do not demand your belongings back, even if taken illicitly, 30b.

Vs. 28a, “Bless those who curse you.”

i. We are first commanded to “Bless” our enemies, the Present, Active, Imperative of EULOGEO, εὐλογέω that means, “speak well of, praise, extol, or bless.” In the Imperative Mood, it is a command to have the right mental attitude towards the antagonist where you are able to “speak well,” of them by seeing the good and not focusing on the bad, Rom 12:9-14; 1 Peter 3:9.

The ones we are to bless, (i.e., have a relaxed mental attitude towards with AGAPE love), are those who “Curse,” us, the Greek Verb KATARAOMAI means, “to will evil against you.” This has the connotation that they have a judgmental mental attitude towards you that wants harm to befall on you that they may carry out themselves either verbally or overtly.

Rom 12:14, “Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse.”

1 Peter 3:9, “Not returning evil for evil or insult for insult, but giving a blessing instead; for you were called for the very purpose that you might inherit a blessing.”

When we are able to do this, we are fulfilling the 4th Beatitude above, vs. 22, and in turn will be “blessed” MAKARIOS by God.

Vs. 28b, “Pray for those who mistreat you.”

ii. Then we are commanded to “Pray for them,” the Present, Active, Imperative of PROSEUCHOMAI, προσεύχομαι. That means we first turn the problem over to God. We give it to Him and ask for a solution to the situation and then look for His answer as to what we should do, if anything, in that situation; all the while trusting in Him and waiting on His timing.

The enemies who curse you are now also “Mistreating,” you, EPEREAZO ἐπηρεάζω “insult, treat abusively, revile, or slander.” The enemy’s negative mental attitude towards you is now expressed in verbal sins against you. This word is only used here and in the parallel of Mat 5:44, “persecute you,” and 1 Peter 3:16.

1 Peter 3:16, “And keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame.”

iii. Being longsuffering, vs. 29-30;

i) Be ready to offer yourself to serve the one who harms you, vs. 29a.

ii) Be ready to offer greater opportunities for service, vs. 29b.

iii) Be ready to give again and again, vs. 30a.

iv) Be ready to forgive debts against you, vs. 30b.

Vs. 29a, “Whoever hits you on the cheek, offer him the other also.”

i) Be ready to offer yourself to serve the one who harms you, 29a.

This is where we get the proverbial phrase, “turn the other cheek,” that speaks of longsuffering and forgiveness. In our passage, it also speaks to loving your neighbor by offering service to them, even if they have harmed you.

Striking” is the Verb TUPTO, τύπτω that means, “beat, smite, strike (someone else or oneself), sting, or wound,” and it can be used as a sign of wounding someone’s conscience, 1 Cor 8:12.

1 Cor 8:12, “And so, by sinning against the brethren and wounding their conscience when it is weak, you sin against Christ.”

So, this “striking” can be a physical hitting or a verbal insult of some kind that offends you or hurts your soul. It is used of Jesus when the Roman soldiers began to spit on Him, mock Him, and “strike” Him, Mat 27:30; Mark 15:19. So, we see in Jesus both the physical and verbal abuse.

Mat 27:30-31, “They spat on Him, and took the reed and began to beat Him on the head. 31After they had mocked Him, they took the scarlet robe off Him and put His own garments back on Him, and led Him away to crucify Him.”

If we are hurt by someone, we are commanded to “offer” the other cheek, using the Present, Active, Imperative of the Verb PARECHO, παρέχω that means, “hand over, offer, present; supply, show, cause, or bring about.” Reflexively, it also means submission or giving oneself up for or to something or someone. In our passage, we are to offer up our other cheek to the one who struck us. In other words, if they have done something against you, do not retaliate, instead continue to be open to them where they may strike you again. We are not to put up walls or repay evil with evil, Prov 20:22; Rom 12:17.

Prov 20:22, “Do not say, ‘I will repay evil’; Wait for the LORD, and He will save you.”

Rom 12:17, “Never pay back evil for evil to anyone. Respect/think about what is right/good (KALOS) in the sight of all men.”

And, remember that God is the one who will deal with all evil, 2 Sam 3:29; Psa 28:4; Jer 51:24.

Vs. 29b, “And whoever takes away your coat, do not withhold your shirt from him either.”

ii) Be ready to offer greater opportunities for service, 29b.

Here, the context is taking or even stealing your coat. If they do, then you should continue in service where they could possibly take your shirt too.

Takes away” is the Verb AIRO, αἴρω that means, “raise, lift up, take up, pick up, bear away, or carry off.” This is the sense of someone taking something from you illicitly, and this case, your outer garment or “coat,” HIMATION, ἱμάτιον, “garment, clothing, cloak, or robe.”

Do not withhold” uses the Greek negative ME, “do not,” and the Aorist, Active, Subjunctive mood of the Verb KOLUP, κωλύω that means, “stop, hinder, prevent, forbid, restrain, or withhold.” The Subjunctive is one of Prohibition, which is a negative command to forbid something from occurring. In this case, the forbidden action is not allowing your shirt to be taken away too. Therefore, we should not refuse to give up our “shirt,” CHITON, χιτών, “tunic or inner garment,” if it might further the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Vs. 30a, “Give to everyone who asks of you.”

iii) Be ready to give again and again, vs. 30a.

In this context, we have someone asking us, (AITEO, “ask, request, or demand’), for something that we are able to provide. When they ask, and we have the means or ability to supply what they are asking for, then we are commanded to give it to them, with the Present, Active, Imperative of the Verb DIDOMI, δίδωμι that means, “give, give out, hand over, entrust, give back, give up.” We are not to be cheapskates or withhold what we are able to provide when we are confronted with a request to satisfy someone’s need, whether they are friend or foe.

Vs. 30b, “And whoever takes away what is yours, do not demand it back.”

iv) Be ready to forgive debts against you, 30b.

Takes away” is the Verb AIRO, as in vs. 29. The command here uses the Greek Negative ME, “do not,” with the Present, Active, Imperative of the Verb APAITEO, ἀπαιτέω that means, “ask for, demand (something) back, require, or reclaim.” It is only used here and in Luke 12:20. This word is also used in the LXX, especially in Deut 15:3, regarding the Year of Jubilee when all debts were nullified. At that time, all loans would be forgiven and the debt was freed and cleared. Therefore, our Lord desires that we have a mental attitude, backed up by our actions, of living every day as if it were the Year of Jubilee and forgive any debts that others have towards us, rather than demand payback for wrongs done against us. In this way, we will show the love, grace, and mercy of God to others, with the hopes of their salvation. Therefore, we have the principle do not demand your belongings back, even if taken illicitly, and forgive those who have sinned against you, Mat 6:12; Luke 11:4.

Mat 6:12, “And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors.”

Luke 11:4, “And forgive us our sins, for we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us.”

      3) Love by the principle, “Do unto others,” vs. 31.

Vs. 31, “Treat others the same way you want them to treat you.”

Matthew quotes our Lord during the Sermon on the Mount in Mat 7:12, “In everything, therefore, treat people the same way you want them to treat you, for this is the Law and the Prophets.”

This is the often quoted and misquoted “Golden Rule,” “Do unto others as you would have done to you.”

A literal reading of Luke’s passage in the Greek is, “And, just as you desire that men should do to you, do to them in the same way.”

“As you desire,” uses the Verb THELO, θέλω that means, “to wish to have, desire, to purpose to do, or to be willing.” With this is “men or people,” ANTHROPOS, and “that should do to you,” which is a complementary HINA, “that” clause with the Present, Active, Subjunctive of POIEO, “do,” with the Pronoun HUMEIS, “you.” It is the compliment to the upcoming command, “do to them in the same way,” that uses the Present, Active, Imperative of the POIEO, “do,” with AUTOS, “them,” with the Adverb HOMOIOS, “likewise, in the same way, similarly, etc.”

As such, we have the principle of “do unto others, as you would have them do to you,” but in reverse where our passage first speaks of how we want others to treat us, and then how we should treat others. The command is on “how we treat others,” with the object lesson of “how we desire others to treat us.” Therefore, regardless of how we are treated by others, we should always treat them the way we would desire to be treated. That is AGAPE Love! Cf. Eph 5:28-29. In other words, we do not reflect the evil actions of others back on to them. Instead, we should reflect the image of God onto them and treat others with kindness, grace, mercy, and love.

“The radical agape-type love (verse 27, agapate, imperative) is not love given in exchange for something. It expects no return. In fact, in the face of violence, theft, ridicule, and mistreatment (verses 28, 29), the disciple must take positive action in direct contradiction to the world’s value system. Such action is the mark of the genuine disciple of Christ.” (Complete Biblical Library Commentary – Luke).

4) Love by having impersonal / unconditional mental attitude AGAPE love with the physical expression of that love by producing Divine Good actions towards others, both verbal and overt, vs. 32-35.

1) The Goal, 32-35a.

i. Have a mental attitude of love towards all, especially those who hate you or have mistreated you, 32.

ii. Perform physical Divine Good Production, the fruit of the Spirit, by helping the unbeliever or reversionistic believer, 33.

iii. Be a gracious giver / lender, without expectations of repayment or quid pro quo, vs 34.

iv. Summarization, 35a.

v. The Encouragement, vs 35b-d.

i) When you do, you will be blessed in time and eternity by God, 35b.

ii) When you do, you will demonstrate your Royal Family status, 35c.

iii) When you do, you will demonstrate the kindness and grace of God, vs 35d.

1) The Goal, vs. 32-35a.

Matthew’s parallel is found in Mat 5:46-48, “For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? 47If you greet only your brothers, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same? 48Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.”

In Luke’s Gospel we are told to:

i. Have a mental attitude of love towards all, especially those who hate you or have mistreated you, vs. 32.

Luke 6:32, “If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them.”

Here, AGAPE “love” is used four times for impersonal /unconditional love that produces Divine good towards others. It tells us, if we only love those who love us what “credit” is that to you, where “credit,” is the Greek Noun CHARIS that means, “grace, graciousness, kindness, goodwill, a gift, a favor, thanks, or gratitude.” In other words, where is the “grace” in loving only those who love you? There is none! But, when you are able to love those who do not love you, that is true grace and a demonstration of the Christ-like nature in you, which is commendable and rewardable!

ii. Perform physical Divine Good Production, the fruit of the Spirit, by helping the unbeliever or reversionistic believer, vs. 33.

Luke 6:33, “If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same.”

Here, “good” is AGATHOPOIEO, for “to do good to, or to act correctly.” It is used twice. This is the actionable aspect of our love or the expression of our AGAPE love to others. Again, the object lesson of, “even sinners do good to other sinners” is in view. Therefore, there is no CHARIS, “grace” in that either. But, if you can perform Divine good production, the Fruit of the Spirit, towards those who are antagonistic towards you, you are once again demonstrating the Christ-like nature of Love that is commendable and rewardable!

iii. Be a gracious giver / lender, without expectations of repayment or quid pro quo, vs 34.

Luke 6:34, “If you lend to those from whom you expect to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners in order to receive back the same amount.”

The third object lesson is “lending,” DANEIZO, “lend money or borrow,” used only in vs. 34-35 and Mat 5:42. Lending to others with the expectation to receive, ELPIZO, “hope for or expect,” with APOLAMBANO, “receive back,” is the way of the world, i.e., “sinners,” HAMARTOLOS. But, to lend and not expect repayment is not of this world, but of God, who freely gives to all, especially His Son and Salvation through the forgiveness of sins. Therefore, in our Christ-like nature, we should have the mental attitude, followed up by our actions of not desiring repayment if we lend to others, which is commendable and rewardable. This does not mean we cannot be repaid or charge interest. It means, we have a mental attitude of forgiving debts against us when necessary, and not holding it over someone’s head, i.e., “lording it over them.” In addition, this is part of the “graciousness” policy we should always maintain in our heart. If someone needs money for a specific need, and we have the means to provide the money for it, in grace we should give them the necessary funds.

In addition, this is the lesson on forgiveness of debts against us, as in vs. 30b, that is also the object lesson of our Lord’s parable in Mat 18:21-35.

iv. Summarization, vs. 35a.

Luke 6:35, “But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return; …”

This is the summary of all that Jesus just said, love (AGAPE) your enemies, do good (AGATHOPOIEO), and lend (DANEIZO), expecting nothing in return, (MEDEIS APELAPIZO). APELAPIZO is an hapaxlegomena. It literally means, “without hope” in the Greek language or “to despair.” But here, with the negative MEDEIS that can mean, “nothing,” it means, “expect nothing in return.” Therefore, there is no quid pro quo, or any expectations. If they happen to pay you back, so be it.

This also tells us that we should not hold a loan over someone’s head by demanding certain actions or behavior from them towards us. We do not “lord” it over them. We are to treat them as if nothing has occurred.

v. The Encouragement, vs 35b-d.

i) When you do, you will be blessed in time and eternity by God, vs. 35b.

ii) When you do, you will demonstrate your Royal Family status, vs. 35c.

iii) When you do, you will demonstrate the kindness and grace of God, vs 35d.

iv) When you do, you will be merciful just as God the Father is, vs. 36.

Luke 6:35b, “… and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for He Himself is kind to ungrateful and evil men.”

Matthew’s parallel is found in Mat 5:44-45, “But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, 45so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.”

Here we have three blessings associated with these attitudes and actions:

i) You will be rewarded,” MISTHOS as in 23, that means you will be “rewarded, recompensed, or repaid” by God in time or eternity or both, Mat 5:12; Luke 6:23; 1 Cor 3:10-15; Rev 2-3. Whereas in vs. 32–34, Jesus commanded us to do good and not base our behavior on the hope of receiving reciprocal treatment, now He promises that in so doing, God will reward us.

1 Cor 15:41, “There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory.”

ii) “You will be sons of the Most High.” Like Luke 1:32 regarding Jesus, this means we will “show ourselves to be sons of God the Father,” through our love, grace, kindness, and mercy.

Mat 5:9, “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.” Cf. Mat 5:45; Gal 4:4-7; Rom 8:14-15.

iii) You will be kind to ungrateful (ACHARISTOS) and evil men (PONEROS),” just as our heavenly Father is. It means you will emulate God the Father’s character and nature, which also means you are demonstrating the Christ-like nature by being “kind,” the Adjective CHRESTOS, χρηστός that means, “good, pleasant, easy, useful, reputable; kind, or loving.” Cf. Rom 2:4; 2 Cor 6:3-10; Gal 5:22-23; Eph 4:32; Col 3:12.

Rom 2:4, “Or do you think lightly of the riches of His kindness and tolerance and patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance?”

Gals 5:22, “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,…”

Eph 4:32, “Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you.”

Col 3:12, “So, as those who have been chosen of God, holy and beloved, put on a heart of compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience.”

iv)You will be merciful towards the unbeliever and reversionistic believer, just as your heavenly Father is,” vs 36.

Luke 6:36, “Be merciful, just as your Father is merciful.” “Merciful” is the Adjective OIKTIRMON, οἰκτίρμων that means, “compassionate or merciful.” It is only used in this verse twice and James 5:11 that tells us, “the Lord is full of compassion and mercy.” Cf. Psa 103:8; 111:4. It means He loves and forgives the sinner of his sins. He has done and does everything necessary to overcome that which separates man from God; our sins. Likewise, we too should have a heart of compassion and mercy and do all that we can to bring the unsaved to salvation. That is why we are commanded to do the things above in love and in this verse to be compassionate towards the sinner. When we do, we are exemplifying the nature of God, and are demonstrating God to the world, which is commendable and rewardable.

Therefore, the disciple who lives in the “already/not yet” kingdom of God is totally the Lord’s, and you will act out the grace of God which you received by exhibiting Divine love for your enemies, just as God’s Divine love reached out to you although you were an enemy of God, cf. Rom 12:9-21; Eph 2:3ff., 12, 14-18.

Rom 12:9-21, “Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor what is evil; cling to what is good. 10Be devoted to one another in brotherly love; give preference to one another in honor; 11not lagging behind in diligence, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord; 12rejoicing in hope, persevering in tribulation, devoted to prayer,  13contributing to the needs of the saints, practicing hospitality. 14Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. 15Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep. 16Be of the same mind toward one another; do not be haughty in mind, but associate with the lowly. Do not be wise in your own estimation. 17Never pay back evil for evil to anyone. Respect what is right in the sight of all men.  18If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all men. 19Never take your own revenge, beloved, but leave room for the wrath of God, for it is written, “VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY,” says the Lord. 20“BUT IF YOUR ENEMY IS HUNGRY, FEED HIM, AND IF HE IS THIRSTY, GIVE HIM A DRINK; FOR IN SO DOING YOU WILL HEAP BURNING COALS ON HIS HEAD.” 21Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.”

luk 6 pt 2 pic 2C. The Associates of His Ministry, Luke 6:12-49.

2. The characteristics of disciples, (The Great Sermon), Luke 6:17-49.

a. Vs. 20-26, Blessings and Woes / Warnings – The beatitudes and anti-beatitudes.

b. Vs. 27-36, Principles of Loving.

c. Vs. 37-45, Principles of Forgiving.

d. Vs. 46-49, Principles of Obeying

c. Principles of Forgiving Vs. 37-45.

We now turn to the third section of the Great Sermon on the Plain that tells us of principles of forgiving in vs. 37-45. In fact, these principles on forgiving begin with vs. 37-38 that continues the message of loving. So, the first two verses are the transition from loving to forgiving, which is the greatest example of loving.

As we know, AGAPE love emphasizes the virtue of the subject rather than the attraction or repulsiveness of the object / person or rapport with a person. AGAPE love is impersonal and unconditional and should be directed toward all mankind, which is the ultimate expression of virtue. It is also the ultima expression of humility. Impersonal love is a Problem-Solving Device in regards to human relationships. It is the basis for having the capacity for personal love towards a few people. And, it is for all mankind as the ultimate expression of maximum metabolized Bible doctrine circulating in the heart (right lobe) of your soul by means of the Holy Spirit.

In John 15:12, 17, we have the commandment to love one another as Jesus loved us.

John 15:12, “This is My commandment, that you love one another, just as I have loved you… 17This I command you, that you love one another.”

Jesus was saying this first to His apostles, who were believers, after they had been together for almost three years. They had developed personality conflicts, took sides, and were critical of each other. Therefore, our Lord wanted them to put aside their petty issues so that they could serve God by serving people. Yet, they first had to learn how to love each other, their fellow believers, so they could better love and serve unbelievers in the world.

We noted in Luke 6:35-36, that AGAPE Love functions regardless of sins or offenses, and without expectation of repayment or gratitude. It is having compassion towards all. Therefore, a merciful or compassionate man easily forgets injuries, pardons without being solicited, and does not permit repeated acts of ingratitude to deter him from doing good. Our Lord is obliging us not to withhold AGAPE Love from fear that if we lend, we may lose what we lend. It is obliging us that if we find the circumstances of any that desires us to lend to him for his necessity, (money or goods as we can spare and we can well enough bear the loss of if the providence of God should render the person unable to repay us), that we should not be deterred to do so, but give with a resolution to lose it, if God pleases to disable the person to whom we lend, so that he cannot repay us.

Then, in Luke 6:37-38, we have four principles of AGAPE Love that also introduce the concept / principles of forgiving, which is itself a very loving act.

Vs. 37

Luke 6:37, “Do not judge, and you will not be judged; and do not condemn, and you will not be condemned; pardon, and you will be pardoned.”

This is paralleled in Mat 7:1-2, that leads to the parallel in Luke 6:41-42.

1) Do not judge.

In the first use of “judge,” in this passage it is in the Present, Active, Imperative of the Verb KRINO, κρίνω that can mean, “separate, distinguish, decide between, judge, determine, give judgment, decide, condemn, punish, etc.” Here, it is linked with the Negative ME for “do not judge” that is a command from our Lord. Judging involves finding fault with one’s neighbor. This tells us we are not to pass judgment on other people based on their actions. The second time it is in the Aorist, Passive, Subjunctive that gives the condition; if you do not judge, you will not be judged, but if you do judge others, you will be judged too.

Remember, we have already spoken about righteous judgment; the correct discernment to avoid sin, in civil courts, for church discipline, etc. But, here it is unrighteous judgment that is the petty evaluation of someone or their actions that views them as sinful. This was said in the face of the Pharisees who were constantly judging and condemning Jesus and his disciples as we have noted previously in the Gospel of Luke. And, in the context of Chapter 6, and this sermon on the Plain, it has to do with our verbal and overt actions that are unloving towards others. It is falsely accusing, gossiping, or slandering someone. We can call this, “character assassination.”

Mat 7:1-2a states, “Do not judge so that you will not be judged. For in the way you judge, you will be judged…”

2) Do not Condemn.

This is followed by the command “not to condemn,” which is first the Negative ME with the Present, Active, Imperative of the Verb KATADIKAZO, καταδικάζω that means, “condemn, find guilty, or pronounce a sentence against.” It is used here twice and in Mat 12:7, 37; James 5:6. It is a compound Verb from the Noun DIKE, “justice,” and Preposition KATA, “against or down.” It is primarily used to convey unjust judgment against someone, especially the innocent, e.g., James 5:6, hence “to deprive a man of justice,” Lam 3:36. It also means to pass a sentence on someone, so it has to do with gossiping, maligning, ostracizing, etc., that we have previously noted. We are not to convict others by passing a sentence on them that is especially unfair and unjust and then treating them poorly ourselves or portraying them as evil to others.

The second use is preceded by the doubling of the Greek negatives, OUK and ME, which means you “absolutely will not,” and followed by the second use of KATADIAZO, which is also in the Aorist, Passive, Subjunctive for the condition that if you do not condemn others, you will absolutely not be condemned yourself.

Therefore, Luke’s context is for the avoidance of self-incrimination and condemnation by not incriminating or condemning others. Mat 7:2, states, “For in the way you judge, you will be judged; and by your standard of measure, it will be measured to you.”

3) Forgiving / Pardoning.

Next, we have the doubling of “pardoning / forgiving,” APOLUO, ἀπολύω, “release, let go, send away, dismiss, let die, divorce, or to depart,” first as a command in the Present, Active, Imperative towards others, and then as a third blessing we receive from God in the Future, Passive, Indicative. To “pardon or forgive,” without reference to sin or crime, is probably the best understanding.

Where the first two mandates might have had a connotation of not falsely accusing others, this one includes true crimes or sins against you. In other words, for the person who has been judged rightly to have sinned against you and rightly condemned or sentenced for their actions against you, you now have the obligation to forgive them of their trespasses against you.

Coming right after vs. 32-35, it may even mean “releasing” of a debt, the forgiving of a financial debt, as such a use occurs specifically in Mat 18:27, and would not violate the ordinary usage of the term.

Mat 18:27, “And the lord of that slave felt compassion and released him and forgave him the debt.”

Mat 6:14, “For if you forgive (APHIEMI) others for their transgressions, your heavenly Father will also forgive (APHIEMI) you.”

Therefore, regardless of the guilt or innocence of others towards you, you are still obligated by God to forgive them. When you do, God will forgive you of your debt towards Him, experientially. This tells us that God will forgive our debt/sins when we forgive the sins of others towards us, including the sin of defaulting on a loan. But, if we do not forgive the sins of others towards us, we will not be forgiven of our sin by God. The reason we are not forgiven by God is that we carry the sin of unforgiveness in our souls; therefore, we are constantly under sin until we confess the sin and have the repentance of forgiving others.

Therefore, if we do not judge or condemn, we will not be judged or condemn, and if we forgive others, we will be forgiven by God. Here, we have the positive aspects of reaping what you sow. We will see more of this below. Yet, the unloving actions here are judging, condemning, and not forgiving others. Those sinful actions will bring the consequences of Divine disciple onto us where God will judge us, condemn us, and not forgive our sins.

The loving actions are to not judge, not condemn, and to forgive others. When we do, we will not be judge or condemned by God and we will be forgiven of our sins by God for experiential cleansing and sanctification, 1 John 17-9. Therefore, AGAPE Love excludes gossiping, maligning, lying, judging, condemning, and unforgiveness.

Vs. 38

Luke 6:38, “Give, and it will be given to you. They will pour into your lap a good measure—pressed down, shaken together, and running over. For by your standard of measure it will be measured to you in return.”

Some call this the “law of reciprocity.” Yet, this is more than just monetary giving. It is a compliment to all that we have just seen. It includes, not judging, not condemning, and forgiving, as well as giving, doing good, lending, and treating others well, which are all aspects of “loving your neighbor.”

When you perform those positive mental attitude actions, followed by loving actions that allow you to continue to have fellowship with others, you are actually giving something to the person involved. You are giving them a good reputation, health, and welfare, so far as it depends on you. By not judging and condemning, and forgiving you are allowing the other person to continue to have good relations with you and with others. You have given them freedom to continue to operate freely within the society without harassment or coercion. You have given them the means to have good inner and outer health and welfare.

Therefore, in this verse, AGAPE Love means a heart for giving that results in tremendous rewards and blessings back to the giver in both time and eternity, Deut 15:10; Prov 19:17; 22:9; 28:8.

Deut 15:10, “You shall generously give to him, and your heart shall not be grieved when you give to him, because for this thing the LORD your God will bless you in all your work and in all your undertakings.”

Prov 19:17, “One who is gracious to a poor man lends to the LORD, and He will repay him for his good deed.”

Prov 22:9, “He who is generous will be blessed, for he gives some of his food to the poor.”

Prov 28:8, “He who increases his wealth by interest and usury, gathers it for him who is gracious to the poor.”

Give” and “given” are the Verb DIDOMI, first in the Present, Active, Imperative for a command to give to others, and then in the Future, Passive, Indicative for the reward the generous person receives in return. It has a third use translated here, “they will pour,” in the Future, Active, Indicative, 3rd Personal, Plural, meaning others will generously give to you.

The place of this pouring / giving is “into your lap,” the Noun KOLPOS, κόλπος that means, “bosom, breast, chest, or lap,” that front area of the body which is between the arms. Because of the intimate nature of the word as related to the human body, the word came to be used in the NT to express a very close, personal relationship. Therefore, the giver will have close relationships with others as well.

Next, we have four metaphors / descriptions / emphasis of the blessing / reciprocity you will receive, “a good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over.”

1. “A good measure,” uses KALOS, “beautiful, good, excellent, advantageous, or noble,” with METRON, “a measure,” which is the instrument or standard by which something is measured whether of content, space, length, or weight. It means that God will judge us rightly and bless us based on how we have blessed others. It is a headline for the blessings to be received that is further described in the next three Perfect, Passive, Participles.

2. “Pressed down,” is the Perfect, Passive, Participle of the Verb PIEZO, πιέζω that is only used here in the NT, and means, “compress, press together, or press down.” If you have a bin of grain and pour it into a barrel, by pressing it down you can fit more into the barrel. As you press down on grapes or olives, out comes the better more useful aspect of the fruit. When you press down a stack of dollar bills to achieve a certain height, you can add more bills to achieve it that height. So, pressing down means more abundant and useful than what you gave.

3. “Shaken together,” is the Verb SALEUO, σαλεύω that means, “shake or totter.” Similarly, when you have a barrel of grain and you shake the barrel, it will settle down and compact, allowing for more to be added to the barrel. This word is typically used in the NT for agitation in a negative sense, but here in the positive sense so that you can add more and more. It has a combining aspect that means your blessings will come in various forms and from various places by the hand of God.

4. “Running over,” is the Verb HUPEREKCHUNNO, ὑπερεκχύννω which means, “pour out over; or passive-to overflow.” This is a rare word in the Greek language and is only used in this passage in the NT. A cognate is used in the LXX of Joel 2:24, “The threshing floors will be full of grain, and the vats will overflow with the new wine and oil.” It comes from HUPER, “above or over,” and EK, “from,” CHEO, “to pour.” If you have a barrel of grain that is full, more poured in will overflow the barrel. This is the “superabundant” blessing; more than enough, more than what you gave is given back to you.

Therefore, when we put on the Christ-like nature, we will be blessed justly, rightly, and fairly by God where we will receive blessings that are abundant and useful to us, that come in various forms and from various places, that will be superabundant; more than enough than what we need and in comparison to what we gave.

Then in vs. 38b, it reads, “For by your standard of measure it will be measured to you in return.” This is both a positive and negative statement depending on how you operate; either positively or negatively towards others.

Mark 4:24 states, “And He was saying to them, ‘Take care what you listen to. By your standard of measure it will be measured to you; and more will be given you besides’.”

Here, we have “standard,” which is the Noun METRON and “measure” which is the Verb METREO and both mean, “measure,” along with the Verb ANTIMETREO that means, “to measure back in return or to give back reciprocally as compensation.” The latter is only used here and Mat 7:2 in the parallel passage.

Mat 7:2, “For in the way you judge, you will be judged; and by your standard of measure, it will be measured to you.”

This means that if we are unloving, unforgiving, ungracious, judgmental, condemning, etc., that is what we will also reap. But, if we are loving, forgiving, gracious, kind, and merciful, that is what we will also reap. And, whatever shades or variations lie in between the former and latter, that is how God will treat us too. It is the proverbial “you will reap what you sow,” cf. Prov 11:24; 22:8-9; Hosea 8:7; 2 Cor 9:6.

Prov 11:24, “There is one who scatters, and yet increases all the more, And there is one who withholds what is justly due, and yet it results only in want.”

2 Cor 9:6, “Now this I say, he who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and he who sows bountifully will also reap bountifully.”

Therefore, our Lord is powerfully encouraging us to give generously of our time, talent, and treasure; our full self, including our inner most being to have and express God’s AGAPE Love to the world, cf. 2 Cor 9:7-11.

Therefore, our loving and merciful actions will be rewarded by God, either indirectly by stirring up others to be as kind to us as we were to others or directly via His providential administration, Deut 24:19; Psa 41:1-3; Prov 11:25; 28:27.

Prov 28:27, “He who gives to the poor will never want, But he who shuts his eyes will have many curses.”

Prov 11:25, “The generous man will be prosperous, And he who waters will himself be watered.”

By God’s Divine Providence, He will see to it that when you act lovingly and mercifully, (not in mere commiseration to human condition, but in just obedience to His will), you will not lose by what you have done. You will be rewarded fully and plentifully, finding again, (though it may be after many days), the bread which you have cast upon the waters, according to His command, Eccl 11:1.

In summary, our Lord mentioned 12 (perfect governance) aspects of unconditional love. These actions are not performed naturally by human nature, but require supernatural enabling and are proof of true righteousness:

  • Love your enemies, vs. 27ff.
  • Do good to those who hate you, vs. 27b.
  • Bless those who curse you, vs. 28a.
  • Pray for those who mistreat you, vs. 28b.
  • Do not retaliate vs. 29.
  • Give freely, vs. 30.
  • Treat others the way you want to be treated, vs. 31.
  • Lend to those in need, vs. 34.
  • Be merciful, vs. 36.
  • Do not unrighteously judge others, vs. 37a.
  • Do not condemn others, vs. 37b.
  • Forgive debts / sins against you, vs. 37c.

The application of AGAPE Love makes you distinctive from others, vs. 32-34, “even sinners…”), and as having the same characteristics as your heavenly Father, vs. 35. Our Lord also teaches us the fundamental principle, “What you sow is what you will reap,” vs. 36-38; cf. Gal 6:7. And when we operate in our Christ-like nature and apply AGAPE Love, God will bless is richly both in time and eternity, vs. 38.

1 John 3:23, “This is His commandment, that we believe in the name of His Son Jesus Christ, and love one another, just as He commanded us.”

Having spoken on several principles regarding “as you want people to treat you, treat them in that way,” vs. 31, i.e.,  the “golden rule,” our Lord then gives a parable in vs. 39-49, regarding how people learn from their teachers; either good or bad depending on whether the teacher is teaching truth or false doctrine.

Vs. 39

Luke 6:39, “And He also spoke a parable to them: ‘A blind man cannot guide a blind man, can he? Will they not both fall into a pit?’”

Matthew also records our Lord using this analogy in Mat 15:14.

Mat 15:14, “Let them alone; they are blind guides of the blind. And if a blind man guides a blind man, both will fall into a pit.”

In that context, Jesus was speaking about the Scribes and Pharisees who were leading the people away from a true relationship with God and Jesus Himself, by teaching false doctrines. Jesus also used the “blind guide,” TUPHLOS HEDEGEO, analogy for the Pharisees in Mat 23:16-17, 24, 26.

“Guide,” is the Present, Active, Infinitive of the Verb HODEGEO, ὁδηγέω that means, “lead one upon his way, guide, or instruct,” It describes the action of leading someone to a desired result and is used 5 times in Mat 15:14; Luke 6:39; John 16:13; Acts 8:31; Rev 7:17; the first two regarding the Pharisees and the last three for leading into the truth of God’s word.

In our passage, it regards the false teacher who teaches false doctrines as the Pharisees were doing. The danger that false teaching brings is described here as “falling into a pit,” EMPIPTO, in the Future, Middle, Indicative that means, “will fall into or be entrapped by,” with the Noun BOTHUNOS that means, “pit, hole, ditch, or cistern.” It is used in Mat 12:11, for saving a sheep on the Sabbath if it falls into a pit, and in Mat 15:14, and here for this parable on the results of receiving false teaching.

This means they will lead themselves and their students to destroy their spiritual life with or in Christ. For the unbeliever, they will never come to the saving knowledge of Jesus Christ, and will not gain a spiritual life. For the believer, it will destroy or stop them from having a spiritual life in Christ post-salvation.

As Jesus states, both the teacher and the student will fall into the pit, meaning a place of danger regarding their spiritual life. Therefore, it is detrimental to your spiritual life to receive false doctrines from false teachers.

Vs. 40

Luke 6:40, “A pupil is not above his teacher; but everyone, after he has been fully trained, will be like his teacher.”

The warning is further described by our Lord by saying in essence, if you receive false teaching, you will achieve the same lack of spiritual life that your teacher has.

This passage can be applied either positively or negatively, yet given the context of this parable, it is meant as a warning to not get involved with the false teachers of false doctrines.

Here we have the principle, a “pupil,” MATHETES, “is not above” EIMI OUK HUPER, “his teacher,” HO DIDASKALOS. And “but everyone,” DE PAS, “after he has been fully trained,” the Perfect, Passive, Participle of KATARTIZO, “will be,” the Future, Middle, Indicative of EIMI, “like his teacher,” HOS HO DIDASKALOS AUTOS.

This idiom means that you are what you learn, and not beyond that. If you learn false doctrine, you will operate by false doctrine.

Vs. 41-42

Here, we have our Lord’s teaching of the “speck and log in the eye” that speaks to not judging others based on the presumptions of the false doctrines you have learned. It was also part of the Sermon on the Mount in Mat 7:1-5, where the context of unrighteous judging is stated in vs. 1-2, as the context for this analogy. In Luke, this context is also applied looking back at vs. 37.

Luke 6:41-42, “Why do you look at the speck that is in your brother’s eye, but do not notice the log that is in your own eye? 42Or how can you say to your brother, ‘Brother, let me take out the speck that is in your eye,’ when you yourself do not see the log that is in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take out the speck that is in your brother’s eye.”

“Speck,” is the Noun KARPHOS, κάρφος that means, “mote, dry stalk, chip of wood, speck, or twig.” It was often used in the Greek language for something that was insignificant. It is only used 6 times in the NT and only in this narrative in Mat 7:3-5, and Luke 6:41-42. It means the insignificant or inconsequential aspects of life that a self-righteous legalistic and arrogant person would look at or inspect in the life of another person.

This is used in comparison to the “log in your own eye,” that uses DOKOS, δοκός for a “beam of wood, log, or joist.” It too is only used 6 times and only in this narrative in Matthew and Luke. Extra-Biblical references commonly indicate that this word is generally used to indicate very large beams of wood suitable to provide heavy foundational support for large buildings and construction needs. Therefore, in the context of our passage, it means a very significant issue or failure, in one’s life in comparison to the rather insignificant weakness in someone else’s life.

This analogy also employs ADELPHOS that means “brother, fellow Christian, or neighbor.”

As such, we are not to unrighteously judge our neighbors, especially our fellow Christians, of the sins in their lives, either real or perceived, because we have plenty of our own sins that we need to deal with ourselves. In the full context of this passage, we are not to take the false doctrines of false teachers and use them to judge our fellow Christians, especially the legalistic aspects of self-righteousness.

In regard to judging our neighbor and the golden rule, we would not want others to point out the petty or significant sins in our lives and make an issue out of them to everyone else. Therefore, we are not to do that to others. Instead, we are to give each other grace and for fellow Christians the privacy of the priesthood by not publically airing the sins of others through gossiping, maligning, slandering, lying, etc. Even when we know about the sins of others, we should not make them public and instead pray about it, and then if God moves us, go to the person, in person and privately, to discuss this issue in exhortation, reproving, or rebuking as necessary, while operating by the filling of the Holy Spirit and in full grace. In that, we are to always be careful that we are not acting out of our own self-righteousness, legalism, or arrogance.

When our Lord states, “but do not notice the log that is in your own eye,” he is reminding us that we all have blind spots regarding our spiritual life. Even though we may know much of the Word of God and are a spiritually mature believer, there will be things and sins that we are unaware of, have somehow justified in our lives, or go unnoticed, OUK KATANOEO, “not perceived, considered, noticed, or observed carefully.” Humility is in the one who recognizes they are a sinner even in spiritual adulthood. Therefore, by way of justification for this principle of “not judging,” our Lord reminds us that we all have sin in our lives that we need to deal with, rather than trying to deal with the sins of everyone else.

You are OUK KATANOEO, not perceiving,” the sin in your own life, “when you yourself do not see the log (sin or error) that is in your own eye.” Yet, if we judge our brother for the sins in his life, our Lord calls us a “hypocrite,” HUPOKRITES ὑποκριτής “hypocrite or pretender.” (Which interestingly enough is a judging.)

Our Lord used this term 7 times in Mat 23:13-29, regarding the Pharisees in His “Woes” towards them, and several other times in Matthew, Mark, and Luke. It is not used in any other books of the Bible. In the Greek language, HUPOKRITĒS was eventually used for actors in the theater; those who pretended to be something or somebody they were not.

Regarding the Pharisees / false teachers of Jesus’ day, it shows what spiritual “actors” and “pretenders” these fakes were. They perverted the Law’s intent, and their external religiosity was an attempt to conceal their inner corruption. Jesus applied the words of Isa 29:13, to them showing that God does not tolerate such pretense.

Isa 29:13, “Then the Lord said, ‘Because this people draw near with their words and honor Me with their lip service, but they remove their hearts far from Me, and their reverence for Me consists of tradition learned by rote’.”

Luke’s usage carries an intimation of the hardness and lack of compassion characteristic of the hypocritical Pharisees, Luke 12:56; 13:15. They not only perverted the Law but also prevented others from knowing God, Mat 23; cf. Luke 11.

Our Lord then states that we should, “first take the log out of your own eye.” This means we need to “judge ourselves rightly,” as noted in 1 Cor 11:28-29, 31-32.

1 Cor 11:28-29, “But a man must examine himself, and in so doing he is to eat of the bread and drink of the cup. 29For he who eats and drinks, eats and drinks judgment to himself if he does not judge the body rightly.” 

1 Cor 11:31, “But if we judged ourselves rightly, we would not be judged.”

The second half reminds us of Luke 6:37, not judging others, so that we too would not be judged by God. But when we do unrighteously judge others, it is sin and God will judge us with Divine disciple, 1 Cor 11:32.

1 Cor 11:32, “But when we are judged, we are disciplined by the Lord so that we will not be condemned along with the world.”

Judging yourself includes confession of sin as stated in 1 John 1:9 for experiential sanctification. The combination of “judging ourselves rightly,” and “the confession of our sins,” is what our Lord is saying in Luke 6:42, “first take the log out of your own eye.” It means we examine / judge our own lives to determine what sin(s) we have committed. When we find sin we have committed, we then name / confess it to God, HOMOLEGEO, 1 John 1:9, for cleansing of all unrighteousness that may be in our lives, that is, the unknown sin in our lives due to our own blind spots as noted in vs. 42, “when you yourself do not see the log (sin / unrighteousness) that is in your own eye.” Even those “blind spots” are cleansed experientially by God for the believer when he confesses his known sins.

In the last part of vs. 42, we see that judging has both a bad connotation as it has been used up to this point, and a good connotation. In other words, there is unrighteous judgment that we are warned not to do in this passage, and there is righteous judgment that we can do as states in vs. 42, “and then you will see clearly to take out the speck that is in your brother’s eye.”

This, coupled with other scriptures, means that we can have righteous judgment in our lives towards our brothers, which we typically call “reproving or rebuking.”  This too, should start with our own self introspection. Once we have done that, we can move to helping our brother or sister overcome their sin with grace and privacy of the priesthood.

The Pastor is to do this through his teaching of true Bible Doctrine, 1 Tim 4:2; 5:20; 2Tim 4:2; Titus 1:12; 2:15.

We are to do so when our fellow believers are thinking in terms of worldliness rather than Divine viewpoint, Mat 16:22; Mark 8:32-33.

We should reprove those who are spiritually mature, because they will understand what you are doing and respond versus the unbeliever or immature believer, Prov 9:8; 13:1; 17:10; 19:25; 24:25; 27:5; Eccl 7:5.

Prov 9:8, “Do not reprove a scoffer, or he will hate you, reprove a wise man and he will love you.”

Prov 13:1, “A wise son accepts his father’s discipline, but a scoffer does not listen to rebuke.”

Prov 19:25, “Strike a scoffer and the naive may become shrewd, but reprove one who has understanding and he will gain knowledge.”

Eccl 7:5, “It is better to listen to the rebuke of a wise man than for one to listen to the song of fools.”

Prov 27:5, “Better is open rebuke than love that is concealed.”

Later, in Luke 17, we will see our Lord’s teaching on rebuking fellow believers.

Luke 17:3-4, “Be on your guard! If your brother sins, rebuke him; and if he repents, forgive him. 4And if he sins against you seven times a day, and returns to you seven times, saying, ‘I repent,’ forgive him.”

Notice that rebuking and forgiveness must go hand in hand. Sin within the community of believers must be confronted. We are not to merely endure the sinful behavior of one who claims to be a brother or sister. We are to rebuke him or her. Jesus was saying that sin is a community problem. We are responsible both for causing others to sin and for ignoring sin in others. In the community of faith, sin is to be dealt with straightforwardly and openly.

We are wrong when we think the Christian life is involved primarily with the elimination of personal sin. We are to oppose sin wherever it is found, whether in our own lives or in the lives of others. We must be careful, however, to do so with the proper motivation and attitude. If we condemn sin merely as a vindication of our own self-righteousness, we are no better than the Pharisees Jesus had been attacking. If we confront sin motivated by an attitude of loving concern for the offending brother or sister, then we are acting as Jesus desires.

This attitude of concern must also be accompanied by our hope that the sinning brother or sister will repent. And when they do, we must be ready, willing, and able to forgive him or her. We are not to foster grudges or engage in backbiting. Instead, we are to accept the confession of repentance whenever it is offered to us, i.e., as many as seven times seventy per day, cf. Mat 18:21-22.” (Complete Biblical Library Commentary – Luke)

“If you have ever taken a flight on an airplane, you have heard an illustration of this point. Before takeoff, the attendant reviews the safety instructions, including instructions for putting on oxygen masks in case of an emergency. The attendant tells the passengers they must put on their own mask before helping those around them. So it is with our sin and the sins of others.” (Christ-Centered Exposition – Exalting Jesus in Luke.)

Vs. 43-45

Continuing His lessons on the “Golden Rule,” vs. 31, (i.e., the way you want to be treated, treat others that way, vs. 31), our Lord has also taught us to:

1. Be generous to others, vs. 37-38.

2. Be careful whom you follow, vs. 39-40.

3. Deal with your own stuff, before you even think about dealing with other people’s stuff, vs. 41-42.

Now, having a heart of loving giving and forgiveness, our Lord uses the analogy of good and bad trees producing good and bad fruit, to emphasize that what is truly in your heart is what you will be. In other word, this is His “garbage in, garbage out,” message!

Luke 6:43-45, “For there is no good tree which produces bad fruit, nor, on the other hand, a bad tree which produces good fruit. 44For each tree is known by its own fruit. For men do not gather figs from thorns, nor do they pick grapes from a briar bush. 45The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings forth what is good; and the evil man out of the evil treasure brings forth what is evil; for his mouth speaks from that which fills his heart.”

This passage is paralleled in Mat 7:15-20, during the Sermon on the Mount, and again in Mat 12:33-35, when our Lord was teaching on the “unpardonable sin.” In both of Matthew’s accounts, it is clearly a rebuking of the false teachers of His day; the Pharisees. Luke’s account is also a rebuke against them but presented in an indirect way, regarding the “blind guides” who lead the blind. Remember, Luke was writing to the Gentiles and did not need to get so caught up in the Jewish religion of that day, where Matthew was writing to the Jews and very much needed to.

Mat 7:15-20, “Beware of the false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravenous wolves. 16You will know them by their fruits. Grapes are not gathered from thorn bushes nor figs from thistles, are they? 17So every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit. 18A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a bad tree produce good fruit. 19Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 20So then, you will know them by their fruits.”

The parallel in Mat 12:33-35, is especially linked to Luke 6:45, where in Mat 12:34b-35, it is in reverse order.

Mat 12:33-35, “Either make the tree good and its fruit good, or make the tree bad and its fruit bad; for the tree is known by its fruit. 34You brood of vipers, how can you, being evil, speak what is good? For the mouth speaks out of that which fills the heart. 35The good man brings out of his good treasure what is good; and the evil man brings out of his evil treasure what is evil.”

luk 6 pt 2 - pic 3Vs. 43

Luke 6:43, “For there is no good tree which produces bad fruit, nor, on the other hand, a bad tree which produces good fruit.”

Coming right after the lesson on not judging your brother, especially when you have “a log (sin) in your own eye (life),” our Lord expands on that theme by noting “what is in a man’s heart will lead his actions.” If his heart to good or truly righteous then he will not produce bad or evil fruit, and if his heart is truly bad or evil then he will not be able to produce good or truly righteous fruit.

As mentioned above, this statement also echoes the saying, “blind guides of the blind.” Both are negative assertions of the failure of the religious leaders to effectively achieve the goal of the gospel of Jesus Christ, which in fact bring true righteousness into the life of the believer.

Tree” is the Noun DENDRON that we also noted in Luke 3:9, “Indeed the axe is already laid at the root of the trees; so every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.” This is also paralleled in Mat 7:19.

Good” is the Adjective KALOS once again that means, “beautiful, good, excellent, advantageous, or noble.” It is the general term for good compared to AGATHOS that means, “good, perfect, complete, upright, kind, benevolent, useful, acceptable, etc.,” that is used for good of intrinsic value or Divine Good Production, the Fruit of the Spirit as in vs. 45. So, here KALOS is used because both the unbeliever and believer can produce some works, 1 Cor 312-15. Yet, for the unbeliever it is “bad fruit,” later called PONEROS. For the believer it is “good fruit,” later called AGATHOS.

Bad Fruit” is SAPROS KARPOS. KARPOS means, “fruit, produce, result, outcome, or even offspring.”

SAPROS means, “rotten, corrupt, useless, unsound, worthless.” It can mean something that is disgusting and offensive too. It is only used in Matthew and Luke in the passages we are noting and in Mat 13:48 and Eph 4:29.

Mat 13:48, “And when it was filled, they drew it up on the beach; and they sat down and gathered the good fish into containers, but the bad they threw away.” This is another analogy of “cutting down the bad tree and throwing it into the fire,” Mat 7:19; Luke 3:9.

Eph 4:29, “Let no unwholesome word proceed from your mouth, but only such a word as is good for edification according to the need of the moment, so that it will give grace to those who hear.” This passage is another way of saying the message Jesus is giving in Luke 6. We are commanded to use our words righteously to build people up, not tear them down through unrighteous judging and condemning with an unforgiving heart.

In the first scenario, we have a good tree producing bad fruit and in the second, a bad tree producing good fruit. Neither is possible in this scenario. In other words, those who have truth / Bible doctrine circulating through their soul WILL NOT produce that which is useless and worthless; they will produce Divine Good. Likewise, those that do not have truth / God’s Word in their soul WILL NOT produce Divine Good; they will produce human good or evil that is “rotten, corrupt, useless, unsound, and worthless.”

And remember, we can only bear good fruit when we are abiding in our Lord Jesus Christ, John 15:2, 4-5, 8, 16, and filled with the Holy Spirit, Gal 5:22-23.

Therefore, we see that the distinctive mark of the disciple of Jesus Christ is behavior, especially doing good, loving enemies, showing mercy, giving to those in need, not judging or condemn, and forgiving. As Luke combines vs. 43 and 44, the disciple of Jesus is recognizable by these things rather than by allegiance to blind false teaching in religious legalism and hypocrisy, which sets up standards for judging others but ignores its own evil condition.

Vs. 44

Luke 6:44, “For each tree is known by its own fruit. For men do not gather figs from thorns, nor do they pick grapes from a briar bush.”

This is the principle, “you will know them by their fruit,” Mat 7:16; 12:33, and in Matthew’s gospel it is explicitly associated with false prophets, Mat 7:15.

Mat 7:15, “Beware of the false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravenous wolves.”

Jesus then provides another analogy regarding “figs,” which is a good fruit for eating sought after by man, compared to “thorns,” which is not sought after and brings pain. This is followed by a similar analogy using “grapes” and “a briar bush.”

Figs,” SUKON, σῦκον is used only four times in the NT, Mat 7:16, Mark 11:13; Luke 6:44; James 3:12. Except of Mark, it is used to discern the fruit that one produces. In Mark, it was the “fig tree” that Jesus cursed in analogy for Israel because of her rejection of the Messiah. As a result, she would no longer produce any good fruit.

Grapes” STAPHULE, σταφυλή can mean “a grape or a bunch of grapes.” It is only used in this narrative in Mat 7:16; Luke 6:44 and Rev 14:18. In this narrative, it too means, “good fruit production,” that does not come from that which would unnaturally produce it.

Rev 14:18, “Then another angel, the one who has power over fire, came out from the altar; and he called with a loud voice to him who had the sharp sickle, saying, ‘Put in your sharp sickle and gather the clusters from the vine of the earth, because her grapes are ripe’.” This speaks of the impending gathering of the unbelieving nations that are ripe for God’s judgment upon them during the Tribulation.

Thorns,” is the Noun AKANTHA, ἄκανθα meaning, “thorn or briar.”

Briar bush” is the Noun BATOS, βάτος that means, “thornbush or briar-shrub.” Used 5 times in the NT, this is the only use of an unfruitful bush. In all the others, Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37, Acts 7:30, 35, it refers to the “burning bush” that our Lord spoke to Moses through.

In the analogy of our passage, they both typify the cares of life and the riches that seduce people, Mat 13:7, that illustrates the inability of the ungodly to bring forth good fruit. Jesus condemned the hypocrisy of the Pharisees with this illustration. As such even the unrighteous can be identified by their fruit unspiritual fruit.

In addition, thorns remind us of the suffering of Jesus, they recall that He carried the results of the curse which befell the earth because of sin, compare Gen 3:18 with Mat 27:29; John 19:2.

The first “gather” is the Verb SULLEGO, συλλέγω that means, “collect or gather.” In all of its uses in the NT, it appears in contexts involving the separation of the good from the bad. It is only used here by Luke and then by Matthew in the parallel of Mat 7:16 and in Mat 13:28-30, 40-41, 48, which speaks to the gathering of unbelievers for eternal condemnation versus believers to be brought to the Kingdom of God.

This is linked with the Greek negative OUK to say “not gathered.” In other words, one who is a “bad tree,” (i.e., thorns or briar bushes), cannot produce Divine Good, (i.e., figs or grapes).

The second “gather” translated “pick,” is the Verb TRUGAO, τρυγάω that means, “gather ripe fruit, harvest.” It is only used here and Rev 14:18-19, the battle of Armageddon. Luke utilizes the term in a metaphoric sense to speak of the fruit of a person’s heart in this unnatural scenario.

These unnatural analogies tell us of the spiritual realties, that only those who are in Christ and filled with the Holy Spirit can produce Divine Good. The one who is not can at best produce human good and evil, which is worthless and will be burnt up, 1 Cor 3:10-15.

Vs. 45

Luke 6:45, “The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings forth what is good; and the evil man out of the evil treasure brings forth what is evil; for his mouth speaks from that which fills his heart.”

As we noted above, the first half of this verse is also noted in Mat 12:35, and the second half is noted in the second half of Mat 12:34.

Here, the “good man,” is AGATHOS ANTHROPOS, and “good treasure” is AGATHOS THESAUROS, “treasury, storehouse, etc.”

The placed that stores the storehouse of treasures is your “heart,” KARDIA, the right lobe of your soul where you store, retain, and apply Bible Doctrine. When you have the truth of God’s Word resident within your soul it is a treasure trove of information for you to apply to life, i.e., “brings forth what is good,” which is Divine Good Production, the Fruit of the Spirit.

Yet, the heart may be a source of good or evil. The Word of God resides in the hearts of men and women, Luke 8:12, 15, but the heart is also the location for evil intentions, Luke 5:22; 9:47. Nevertheless, God knows the hearts of men, Luke 16:15.

On the flip side, we have the second half of this verse that reads in the Greek, “and the evil, out from evil, produces the evil.” Given the context of the first half of this verse, we can associate the three evils used here and say, “and the evil man out of the evil treasures of his heart brings forth evil.”  The only thing the NASB did not add was “of his heart.”

Evil man,” is the Adjective PONEROS, πονηρός that means, “bad, wicked, evil, or depraved.” The type of fruit this evil produces is given in the last portion of this verse, “for his mouth speaks from that which fills his heart.”

Fills the heart,” uses KARDIA for “heart” once again, and the Noun PERISSEUMA, περίσσευμα which means, “abundance or what is left over.” It is used synonymously here for “treasures or store house” used above. It suggests the dual capacity of the heart, as it is used positively in Mark 8:8; 2 Cor 8:14, but, here and in Mat 12:34, negatively for the evil speech that comes from the evil heart; speech like, slander, gossip, maligning, lying, verbal abuse, judging, condemning, and that is unforgiving.

Therefore, it is the inner reservoir or storehouse that serves as an abundant source of all an individual’s evil judgments and spoken words. The point Jesus is making to the Pharisees is clear: “your malicious judgments come from the treasure-house of your malicious nature.”

The influence of the heart upon the spoken word is also noted in Mark 7:14-22; James 3:10-12. In comparison between the good man and the evil man, we see that based on what is in the heart of their soul determines what comes out and is evident to the world. Later in Luke 12:31-34, our Lord encourages us to seek the good of intrinsic value to produce Divine good of intrinsic value.

Luke 12:31-34, “But seek His kingdom, and these things will be added to you. 32Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has chosen gladly to give you the kingdom. 33Sell your possessions and give to charity; make yourselves money belts which do not wear out, an unfailing treasure in heaven, where no thief comes near nor moth destroys. 34For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also.”

As Jesus said, a bad tree brings forth bad fruit because the tree is bad. A thorn or bramble bush cannot produce figs or grapes. Applying this to people, the point is the same one Jesus taught Nicodemus: “You must be born again.” Therefore, to bring forth good fruit there must be a change in a person’s nature. Reform is not enough. Rebirth is essential. As such, the “good man” must be a man of good words and good deeds. The Christian must avoid becoming influenced by “man’s” ways and learn how to live in grace demonstrated by love.

“The fruit we produce actually comes from our hearts. The invisible things of the heart are revealed by the visible actions and audible words of a person. We do not see into another person’s heart, but that does not mean the heart never reveals itself. The words and actions tell us what lies beyond natural sight in the heart.”  (Christ-Centered Exposition – Exalting Jesus in Luke.)

This entire section is moving toward vs. 46: The crux of the issue is the danger of falling prey to the legalistic and judgmental pressures of religiosity, and thereby be blinded from seeing the Christ and truly living righteously in Him.

By way of reminder, the outline of the Great Sermon on the Plain, vs. 20-49:

a. Vs. 20-26, Blessings and Woes / Warnings – The beatitudes and anti-beatitudes.

b. Vs. 27-36, Principles of Loving.

c. Vs. 37-45, Principles of Forgiving.

d. Vs. 46-49, Principles of Obeying.

d. Vs. 46-49, Principles of Obeying.

Vs. 46-49

Here, Our Lord is giving His final challenge of the Sermon on the Plain to follow Him rather than the blind guides of vs. 39. His first illustration, vs. 39-42, speaks to the absurdity of judging and criticizing others, using a negative example to say that all disciples, especially those in leadership, should “judge themselves rightly,” i.e., be self-critical. Now, in this illustration, we will see the issue of obedience, vs. 46-49, to our Lord Jesus Christ, i.e., His teaching / the Word of God. As such, we are exhorted by our Lord to learn God’s Word / Bible doctrine from our spiritual leaders, so that we all can judge ourselves rightly in order to serve our Lord, as we strive for obedience to Him and His Word. Bible Doctrine in the heart of your soul is the “good,” AGATHOS, “useful, beneficial, or pure,” that is within the good person who has Divine Good Production in his words and deeds.

Vs. 46

Luke 6:46, “Why do you call Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ and do not do what I say?”

The parallel is found in Mat 7:21, “Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter.”

Matthew gives the context of entrance into the Kingdom of Heaven when someone truly believes in Jesus Christ as the Messiah/Savior, which is demonstrated by “doing the will of the Father.” Therefore, as citizens of heaven we should be taking in and applying God’s Word.

Luke’s context is emphasizing the Divine Good Production that is either done by the faithful obedient believers or not done by the unbeliever or reversionistic believer.

Lord, Lord,” is the Vocative use of KURIOS, κύριος that is doubled here, a typical style of Luke, and means, “Lord, master, ruler, owner, or supreme controller.” The title “Lord” honored someone having both power and authority, and the doubling of the title when calling to someone emphasizes the emotion, strongly implying complete devotion. It is the Greek equivalent of the title for God, YHWH, in the Hebrew Bible. It also is used to translate both ADHON and BA’AL, to mean, “Lord.” Of the 700 times it is used in the NT, it is used 200 times in Luke’s writings.

Remember too, that the backdrop to “Lord, Lord,” is the “blind guides” that lead their disciples to destruction, i.e., the pit. Here, our Lord is noting that disciples are not following Him as they should and too will fall into destruction.

The goal of this exhortation is to encourage the believer to place every aspect of his life under the Lordship of Christ, not for salvation but for Divine Good Production, and glorification of God. True disciples heed their Teacher’s words and then faithfully apply them. Their examinations, as Jesus will note, comes in the form of trials.

1 Peter 3:15, “But sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence.”

To confess Christ as Lord, one must be willing to faithfully carry out His perfect will. Yet, any distortion of His commands results in catastrophe.

Why do you call me ‘Lord, Lord’ and not do what I say.” This is first addressing those who do not believe in Jesus as the Messiah / Savior, who are rebellious towards His teaching, especially what He has noted in this Sermon on the Plain, vs. 20-49. For those who do not listen to and obey our Lord’s teaching, (i.e., the mind of Jesus Christ, 1 Cor 1:10), Luke then follows with the calamitous results. Matthew speaks of non-entrance into the Kingdom of God and then the calamitous results. To call Jesus “Lord,” and not do what He says is to make the word Lord meaningless.

Vs. 47-49

Our Lord’s second parable is found in vs. 47-49, that is paralleled in Mat 7:24-27, “Therefore everyone who hears these words of Mine and acts on them, may be compared to a wise man who built his house on the rock. 25And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and slammed against that house; and yet it did not fall, for it had been founded on the rock. 26Everyone who hears these words of Mine and does not act on them, will be like a foolish man who built his house on the sand. 27The rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and slammed against that house; and it fell—and great was its fall.”

Vs. 47-48

This is the example of the positive believer who is consistently taking in and applying God’s Word to his/her life.

Vs. 47
Luke 6:47, “Everyone who comes to Me and hears My words and acts on them, I will show you whom he is like:”

In this passage, we have the principles of “coming,” ERCHOMAI, to Jesus, “hearing” AKOUO, His Words, and “doing,” POIEO, applying His Words. This is the principle of the intake and application of Bible Doctrine in your life. The intake is through the ear gate as you learn God’s Word from a prepared Pastor/Teacher who is teaching the truth of God’s Word, followed by the application of that in your life towards God and mankind.

I will show you,” uses the Verb HUPODEIKNUMI, ὑποδείκνυμι that means, “show plainly, point out, give direction, warn, set forth, inform.” We previously noted this word in parallels of Luke 3:7 and Mat 3:7, as it is also used only by Luke in Luke 12:5; Acts 9:16; 20:35. Jesus is about to give them an object lesson of this principle for both those who learn and apply His Word to their life and for those who do not.

Vs. 48

Luke 6:48, “He is like a man building a house, who dug deep and laid a foundation on the rock; and when a flood occurred, the torrent burst against that house and could not shake it, because it had been well built.”

This first object lesson is the positive believer who builds up his soul with Bible Doctrine consistently within his life, and then, when the problems and difficulties of life come in, he is able to stand firm by applying what he has previously learned.

Building” is the Greek Verb OIKODOMEO, οἰκοδομέω that means, “build (a home or building), erect, edify, encourage.” The most common meaning of OIKODOMEO in Greek literature is “to build or to erect a structure,” such as a house or a temple. It is equivalent to the Hebrew BANAH. Metaphorically, the historian Philo used OIKODOMEO to describe the function of the heart upon which the whole body rests and by which it is built up, which is equivalent to our Lord’s usage here.

It describes the activity of spiritual growth within the community of believers. It denotes the content and purpose of the Church’s life, as the Church is also, “being built into a spiritual house…offering spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ,” 1 Peter 2:5.

This is where we get the idea of the “Edification Complex of the Soul,” (ECS). That is, the building up of your soul through the intake and application of Bible Doctrine that leads to spiritual adulthood.

This ECS is called a “house,” OIKIA, “house, dwelling, household.” Cf. 2 Cor 5:1, “For we know that if the earthly tent which is our house is torn down, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.”

The process of building your ECS is described by our Lord as “who dug deep and laid a foundation on the rock.”

“Dug,” is the Aorist, Active, Indicative of the Verb SKAPTO, σκάπτω that means, “dig or dig up” referring to cultivating the ground to plant. It is only used here and Luke 13:8; 16:3. This is our consistent intake of God’s Word by learning from our right Pastor/Teacher.

Deep,” is the Aorist, Active, Indicative of the Verb BATHUNO, βαθύνω that is only used here in the NT. It means, “to deepen or make deep.” It is an idiomatic translation of a phrase which literally means, “dug and deepened (EBATHUNEN).” This is the emphasis of not just, “willy nilly” learning, which means inconsistent, not extensive, not seriously, and taking it for granted. “Digging deep” is what all believers should be doing with the Word of God, digging deep into it.

Next is “laid a foundation on the rock,” which is the obvious metaphor for our Lord Jesus Christ, who is the great corner stone and His Word that we should have resident within our souls. “Laid a foundation,” is TITHEMI THEMELIOS, where THEMEMILIOS, “foundation,” is first used in the NT and reminds us of 1 Cor 3:10-12; Eph 2:20; 1 Tim 6:19; 2 Tim 2:19; Heb 6:1, as Jesus is the “rock” PETRA by .which the Church is built upon, Mat 16:18; Rom 9:33; 1 Cor 10:4.

1 Cor 3:10-12, “According to the grace of God which was given to me, like a wise master builder I laid a foundation, and another is building on it. But each man must be careful how he builds on it. 11For no man can lay a foundation other than the one which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. 12Now if any man builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw.”

Eph 2:20-22, “Having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone, 21in whom the whole building, being fitted together, is growing into a holy temple in the Lord, 22in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling of God in the Spirit.”

1 Tim 6:18-19, “Instruct them to do good, to be rich in good works, to be generous and ready to share, 19storing up for themselves the treasure of a good foundation for the future, so that they may take hold of that which is life indeed.”

2 Tim 2:17-19, “And their talk will spread like gangrene. Among them are Hymenaeus and Philetus, 18men who have gone astray from the truth saying that the resurrection has already taken place, and they upset the faith of some. 19Nevertheless, the firm foundation of God stands, having this seal, ‘The Lord knows those who are His,’ and, ‘Everyone who names the name of the Lord is to abstain from wickedness’.”

Heb 6:1-2, “Therefore leaving the elementary teaching about the Christ, let us press on to maturity, not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God, 2of instruction about washings and laying on of hands, and the resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment.”

Rom 9:33, “Just as it is written, ‘Behold, I lay in Zion a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense, and he who believes in Him will not be disappointed’.”

1 Peter 2:8, “‘A stone of stumbling and a rock of offense;’ for they stumble because they are disobedient to the word, and to this doom they were also appointed.”

Then we have the pressures, problems, difficulties, trials, temptations, sorrows, cares of life, etc., coming into play, where the one who has a solid foundation in Christ Jesus, i.e., His Word, will be able to withstand them. “And when a flood occurred,” uses the noun PLEMMURA, πλήμμυρα “a flood, high water.” It too is only used here in the NT and is used metaphorically, although a literal flood can be part of the pressures of life.

Then we have “the torrent burst against that house,” where “torrent” is the Noun POTAMOS that can mean, “flood, river, torrent, or stream,” and “burst,” is PROSREGUMI, “burst upon, break against,” that is used only here and in vs. 49. It speaks to the suddenness or onslaught of a calamity like the flooding of a river in this analogy, where all that water pounded against, “that house,” OIKIA. This is the house built upon the mind of Jesus Christ / Bible Doctrine.

So, the term for “torrent” literally means “river” and this torrent is an unusual, cataclysmic event that pictures end-time devastation. People, even stupid people, do not build their houses in rivers, just as no one wants to build their home in hell. Yet, those who reject Jesus Christ and His Word are building their home in hell. 

Then we have, “and could not shake it,” which uses the Aorist, Active, Indicative of the Verb ISCHUO that means, “be strong, able, forceful, to prevail, power or might.” It speaks to the power or ability one possesses, the strength to overcome, Acts 19:20; Phil 4:13.

Acts 19:20, “So the word of the Lord was growing mightily and prevailing.”

Phil 4:13, “I can do all things through Him who strengthens me.”

In this case, it is the power of Bible Doctrine resident within your soul. The power of God’s Word is stronger than any pressure or calamity that Satan’ world can throw at you. The “armor of God” is stronger than any temptation Satan can throw at you, Eph 6:10-18.

In fact, persevering under pressure is by itself Divine Good Production, as you apply God’s Word to the difficult situations and temptations of life, Luke 8:15.

Luke 8:15, “But the seed in the good soil, these are the ones who have heard the word in an honest and good heart, and hold it fast, and bear fruit with perseverance.”

With this is the Greek negative OUK, “not,” and the Aorist, Active, Infinitive of the Verb SALEUO, σαλεύω, “shake or totter,” which we noted in vs. 38. Combined, they figuratively mean to not be able to produce instability or agitation within a person, that is, to be unshakable or permanent.

The reason this person will not be overcome by the pressures of life is “because it (his house / heart) had been well built,” DIA AUTOS KALOS OIKODOMEO, once again meaning, “build, erect, or edify.”

This person had built their Edification Complex of the Soul.

Vs. 49

This is the example of the unbeliever or negative believer who is NOT coming to, consistently taking in, or applying God’s Word to his/her life.

Luke 6:49, “But the one who has heard and has not acted accordingly, is like a man who built a house on the ground without any foundation; and the torrent burst against it and immediately it collapsed, and the ruin of that house was great.”

This begins with the Contrasting Conjunction DE for “but, moreover, yet in fact, etc.” This is the contrast to the believer who has built their ECS. This could be an unbeliever or reversionistic believer. These people did not learn God’s Word / Bible Doctrine, and therefore cannot apply it or its strength to their lives. Instead they built up their soul with the things of this world, as noted here, “on the ground,” that uses the Noun GE that means, “earth, ground, or soil,” “without any foundation,” CHORIS THEMELIOS. CHORIS translated “without” here, actually means, “separately, without, apart from, or besides.” It is called an “improper preposition,” because it does not form compound words with verbs. It identifies Genitive nouns as “Genitives of Separation,” as THEMELIOS is here.

Eph 2:12, “Remember that you were at that time separate from Christ, excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world.”

Therefore, these people have separated themselves from Christ, and do not have Him in their life as power to overcome the pressures or calamities of life. Instead, they have built their house, edified their soul, with the “ground/earth” meaning Satan’s cosmic system of sin, human good, and evil that is foundationless.

As a result, when the pressures or calamities of life come, i.e., “the torrent burst against it,” because it had not foundation in Christ, “immediately it collapsed, and the ruin of that house was great.”

Immediately it collapsed,” is EUTHUS, “immediately,” and SUMPIPTO, συμπίπτω, “fall together, collapse, fall,” in the Aorist, Active, Indicative. This verb is also only used here in the NT. This term takes its meaning from the Preposition SUN, “together,” and the Verb PIPTŌ that Matthew uses that means, “fall down.” Many nuances of meaning are associated with this term in Greek literature: “fall in with” (especially with accidents or misfortunes). Also, figuratively, in the Septuagint (LXX) and the Apocrypha, it is used of the collapse of a person’s emotional state. Therefore, both are in view. This fall is one that is combined with the fall of Satan’s cosmic system and the earth that has thorns and briar bushes because of sin coming into the world. It also leads to the individual’s fallen emotional state, as they are overcome by the pressures and calamities of life and sin inside of Satan’s cosmic system.

The extent of this fall or being overcome by life is noted in the last phrase, “and the ruin of that house (OIKIA) was great (MEGAS),” where Luke uses the Noun RHEGMA, ῥῆγμα that means, “ruin, collapse, wreck, or fracture.” It too is only used here in the NT, a hapaxlegomena. In classical Greek, it is used to describe a break in a dam, the destruction of buildings, and in similar ways to denote collapse and ruin. It was used in the LXX in 1 Kings 11:30-31, for the dividing of the kingdom of Israel. Therefore, in our passage, it means a life built on anything other than the words of Jesus Christ is destined for destruction.

Therefore, we are given the mandate to listen to Jesus, by learning His Word and applying it in our lives so that when the pressures or temptations of life come at us, we are able to withstand them as we are anchors on the “Rock of our Salvation,” thereby being overcomers.

If we are disciples of Jesus, then we must obey Him. It is hypocritical to call ourselves Christians and not do what He says. Worse than that, our disobedience proves we do not, in fact, love him. So Jesus says,

  • John 14:15, “If you love me, you will keep my commands.”
  • John 14:21, “The one who has my commands and keeps them is the one who loves me.”
  • John 14:24, “The one who does not love me will not keep my words.”
  • John 15:10, “If you keep my commands you will remain in my love, just as I have kept my Father’s commands and remain in His love.”
  • John 15:14, “You are my friends if you do what I command you.”

Our obedience does not earn God’s forgiveness or acceptance. No one will obey their way to heaven. God saves sinners by grace alone through faith alone. But saving faith is never alone; it is accompanied by an obedience that comes from faith, Rom 1:5; James 1:22.

Rom 1:5, “Through whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith among all the Gentiles for His name’s sake.”

James 1:22, “But prove yourselves doers of the word, and not merely hearers who delude themselves.” See also, James 1:23-25; 2:14-20.

“Ultimately, Jesus describes the difference between heaven and hell. Heaven belongs to those who believe the gospel and obey Jesus. Hell is the ruin that awaits those who reject the gospel and do not obey the Lord’s words. You have to decide if Jesus is a liar, a lunatic, or your Lord. If he is telling the truth—and he is—then the only sane thing to do is accept him as Lord and follow his teachings all the days of your life.” (Christ-Centered Exposition – Exalting Jesus in Luke.)

Therefore, it is not enough just to hear the gospel; it is necessary to obey it too. Therefore, the heart of Christianity starts in the church sanctuary when the Bible is taught. But, real Christ-following occurs during the week, when the church building is miles away and we are in our home, on the road, at the office, or in cyberspace. That is where disciples genuinely follow Christ, where heavenly citizens willingly obey the King, and where leaders truly lead.

“For Jesus, discipleship involved far more than passing on knowledge from teacher to students or merely training a group of successors to continue what He had started. For Him, disciples are people called out of the present world order to become Christ-like citizens of a completely new kingdom. Christian discipleship, therefore, is the process of introducing the citizens of King Jesus to a completely foreign culture in which everything is different—governance, the role of the law, the economy, even the system of jurisprudence. What the world calls foolish is wise in the new kingdom life Jesus offers. Mercy replaces retribution. Grace supplants justice. Sacrificial giving drives the economy—not earning, borrowing, lending, buying, and hoarding (Luke 6:20-38).” (Swindoll’s Living Insights New Testament Commentary – Luke.)

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