Creation Versus Evolution

creation vs evolution


We now enter into an important study regarding creation as being God’s creative act of the heavens and earth, versus the theories of evolution the world so richly embraces. Genesis 1 gives us the account of God’s creative Act. Read: Genesis 1. To begin I quote the late L.S. Chafer, former President of Dallas Theological Seminary.

“Evolution is a humanly devised theory which has no truly scientific basis or evidence upon which to rest, but is all the same believed by college and university professors and in general the intellectual class. No thoughtful person can avoid the problem of the origin of all things, and the evolutionary theory is perhaps the best theory that unregenerate man can conceive. The unsaved cannot take God and His revelation into their thoughts. He certainly is not in all their thoughts, Psa 10:4. The divine seeming so unreal to them, the concept of deity has not provided a reasonable enough basis for their minds when it is declared that God did anything. Therefore, being unable to believe the Genesis account of creation and not having any ability to believe that there is a God who created all things, they have devised the best theory that they can, but still with great inconsistency. As avowedly scientific men, they must refuse to accept anything which is unproved; yet in this theory of evolution they accept every word of testimony regardless of a lack of proof, and of course no effectual line of proof has been constructed or discovered. Such men in their unregenerate limitation are to be pitied. No Spirit-taught person will have trouble with the Genesis account of creation. Having nothing to put in its place, however, the evolutionist must devise the best theory that he can with which to satisfy the mind on the vexing problem of origins.” (L.S. Chafer, Systematic Theology)

The Theory of Evolution.

We begin by examining the Theories of Evolution. Considered abstractly, evolution is presented in two different forms.

Naturalistic, contending that by “natural selection” and the “survival of the fittest,” the varied forms of living things came to be what they are as a result of fortuitous arrangement.

Theistic evolution, a system which seeks to retain some recognition of God by making Him the original cause, while embracing a supposed evolutionary process as the method by which God developed man from the original cell He had created.

Both of these are not only unproved and unreasonable, but is a dishonor to God. God states clearly in the book of Genesis and throughout the Bible that His Being is the sole source of all things and the precise method He employed.

Chafer states, “To disregard this revelation and substitute a groundless human fiction in its place is to accuse God of untruth and to reject a plain Scripture, with the liberty granted to others to reject every other page of the Bible, if their unbelief so dictates. The divine method of creation is constantly reappearing in the text of the Bible and precisely in accord with that first disclosed in Genesis.” cf. Mat 19:4; Rom 5:12-19; 1 Cor 15:45-49; 1 Tim 2:13.

Those who embrace the Darwinist theory of evolution and animal ancestry dishonor both God and himself, having disregarded the truth of God’s Word treating it with antagonism. These despise His Divine counsels and reject His Divine grace.

If man is the product of natural forces, then he has as much responsibility along moral lines as natural forces demand and no more. If God and His Word are eliminated, as the evolutionary hypothesis eliminates them, then men may look to tadpoles for their moral ideals, and truth is without a foundation.

Yet, as His creation, we have a moral accountability to Him and His Word. As it says in 1 Pet 1:16, “YOU SHALL BE HOLY, FOR I AM HOLY.” Or Mat 5:48, “Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.”

Yet, is it no wonder that animalism has crept into our society and schools where this antigod system is upheld?

Remember what Rom 4:3 tells us, “Let God be true, but every man a liar.”

Wikipedia Definition: Evolution is the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization, including species, individual organisms, and molecules such as DNA and proteins.

Life on Earth originated and then evolved from a universal common ancestor approximately 3.8 billion years ago. Repeated speciation and the divergence of life can be inferred from shared sets of biochemical and morphological traits, or by shared DNA sequences. These homologous traits and sequences are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct evolutionary histories, using both existing species and the fossil record. Existing patterns of biodiversity have been shaped both by speciation and by extinction.

Charles Darwin was the first to formulate a scientific argument for the theory of evolution by means of natural selection. Evolution by natural selection is a process that is inferred from three facts about populations:

1) More offspring are produced than can possibly survive.

2) Traits vary among individuals, leading to differential rates of survival and reproduction.

3) Trait differences are heritable.

Thus, when members of a population die, they are replaced by the progeny of parents that were better adapted to survive and reproduce in the environment in which natural selection took place. This process creates and preserves traits that are seemingly fitted for the functional roles they perform. Natural selection is the only known cause of adaptation, but not the only known cause of evolution. Other, non-adaptive causes of evolution include mutation and genetic drift.

In the early 20th century, genetics was integrated with Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection through the discipline of population genetics. The importance of natural selection as a cause of evolution was accepted into other branches of biology. Moreover, previously held notions about evolution, such as orthogenesis and “progress” became obsolete. Scientists continue to study various aspects of evolution by forming and testing hypotheses, constructing scientific theories, using observational data, and performing experiments in both the field and the laboratory. Biologists agree that descent with modification is one of the most reliably established facts in science. Discoveries in evolutionary biology have made a significant impact not just within the traditional branches of biology, but also in other academic disciplines (e.g., anthropology and psychology) and on society at large.

The Blending of Evolution and Creation. (Outline based on the writing of Henry Morris.)

The evolutionary system has been entrenched in our society and schools for so long that many who otherwise accept the Bible as infallible have deemed it expedient to compromise on this issue. Thus, evolution has been called, “God’s method of creation;” and the Genesis record of the six days of creation has been reinterpreted in terms of the evolutionary ages of historical geology. This has been popularized by the likes of so called “Christian” movies such as the “Genesis Code” that try to link the six days of creation with geological development over millions of years.

They say that these geological ages have been accommodated in Genesis by changing the “days” of creation into the “ages” of evolution.

In understanding God’s actual creation, it is critical that we interpret the Bible literally and then fit science into it, if at all possible. We should never try to the fit the Bible into science. Remember that at one time, science said the earth was held up on the backs of turtles and it was flat. But science eventually caught up to the truth of the Bible discovering the earth is actually round.

There are Two Types of Evolutionary Theory:

1) Atheistic evolution that sees spontaneous generation as the original cause of life, “the big bang theory,” to the exclusion of a grand design or designer.

2) Theistic evolution that sees a Divine power as the original cause and guiding force of life, albeit over millions of years.

The purpose of this portion of our study is to show the Theistic evolution theories, which seek to homogenize the Bible with evolutionary geology, and how they are invalid and, therefore should be abandoned.

Theistic Evolution.

Evolution is believed by its leading advocates to be a basic principle of continual development, of increasing order and complexity throughout the universe. The complex elements are said to have developed from simpler elements, living organisms to have evolved from non-living chemicals, complex forms of life from simpler organisms, and even man himself to have gradually evolved from some kind of ape-like ancestor. Religions, cultures, and other social institutions are likewise believed to be continually evolving into higher forms.

Evolution itself is an explanation of the origins and meanings of life without the necessity of a personal God who created and upholds all things. Since this philosophy is so widely and persuasively taught in our schools, Christians are often tempted to accept the compromise position of “theistic evolution,” according to which evolution is viewed as God’s method of creation. However, this is basically an inconsistent and contradictory position. A few of its fallacies are as follows:

It contradicts the Bible record of creation. Seven times in the first chapter of Genesis, it is said that God created plants and animals to reproduce “after their (or its) kind.” It implies definite limits to variation. The New Testament writers accepted the Genesis account of creation, even Christ Himself quoted from it as historically accurate and authoritative, Mat 19:4-6, quoting Genesis 2:24.

It is inconsistent with God’s methods. The standard concept of evolution involves the development of innumerable misfits and extinctions, useless, and even harmful organisms. If this is God’s “method of creation,” it is strange that He would use such cruel, haphazard, inefficient, wasteful processes. The idea of the “survival of the fittest,” whereby the stronger animals eliminate the weaker in the “struggle for existence” is the essence of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, so why didn’t T-Rex dominate the world, rather than smaller and weaker homo-sapiens.

The evolutionary philosophy is the intellectual basis of all anti-theistic systems. It served Hitler as the rationale for Nazism and Marxism as the supposed, scientific basis for communism. It is the basis of the various modern methods of psychology and sociology that treat man merely as a higher animal, and which have led to the misnamed “new morality” and ethical relativism. It has provided the pseudo-scientific rationale for racism and military aggression. Its whole effect on the world and mankind has been harmful and degrading.

In his biography of Joseph Stalin published by the Russian communists, Yaroslavsky says that, at an early age, Stalin “began to read Darwin and became an atheist.” Later Stalin told a friend: “I’ll lend you a book to read; it will show you that … all this talk about God is sheer nonsense’… ‘What book is that?’ I inquired. Darwin. ‘You must read it,’ Joseph impressed on me.” (Davidheiser, p. 353)

Jesus said: “A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit,” Mat 7:18. The evil fruit of the evolutionary philosophy is evidence enough of its evil roots.

Thus, any form of evolution is Biblically unsound, theologically contradictory and sociologically harmful.

Progressive Creation.

Some Christians use this term “progressive creation,” instead of “theistic evolution,” the difference being the suggestion that God interjected occasional acts of creation at critical points throughout the geological ages. Thus, for example, man’s soul was created, though his body evolved from an ape-like ancestor.

This concept is less acceptable than theistic evolution however. It not only charges God with waste and cruelty, but also with ignorance and incompetence. God’s postulated intermittent creative efforts show either that He did not know what He wanted when He started the process or else that He could not provide it with enough energy to sustain it until it reached its goal. A god who would have to create man by any such cut-and-try discontinuous, injurious method as this can hardly be the omniscient, omnipotent, and loving God of the Bible.

The Day-Age Theory.

According to the established system of historical geology, the history of the earth is divided into a number of geological ages. The earth is supposed to have evolved into its present form and inhabitants over a vast span of geologic ages, beginning about a billion years ago.

The most popular of these theories has been the “day-age” theory, by which the “days” of creation were interpreted figuratively as the “ages” of geology, (as noted above in movies like the “Genesis Code.”). However, there are many serious difficulties with this theory.

The Hebrew word for “day” is YOM, and the word can occasionally be used to mean, “an indefinite period of time,” if the context warrants. In the overwhelming majority of its occurrences in the Old Testament, it means, “a literal day, that is, either an entire solar day or the daylight portion of a solar day.” It was defined by God Himself the very first time it was used in Genesis 1:5, where we are told that “God called the light, day.” In the context, it means, “day” in the succession of “day and night” or “light and darkness,” a 24-hour period of time.

The plural form of the word YAMIM is used over 700 times in the Old Testament and always, without exception, refers to literal “days.” Note what is says in Ex 20:11, “For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them.”

Not only is the day-age theory unacceptable scripturally, but it also is grossly in conflict with the geological position with which it attempts to compromise. There are more than 20 serious contradictions between the Biblical order and events of the creative days and the standard geologic history of the earth and its development, even if it were permissible to interpret the “days” as “ages.” For example, the Bible teaches that the earth existed before the stars, that it was initially covered by water, that fruit trees appeared before fishes, that plant life preceded the sun, that the first animals created were the whales, that birds were made before insects, that man was created before woman, and many other such things, all of which are contradicted by historical geologists and paleontologists.


Only a few of the many difficulties with the various theories have been discussed, but even these-have shown that it is impossible to devise a legitimate means of harmonizing the Bible with evolution. We must conclude that if the Bible is really the Word of God, then evolution and its geological age-system cannot be blended and mixed, and therefore is completely false. Since the Bible cannot be reinterpreted to correlate with evolution, Christians must diligently proceed to correlate the facts of science with the Bible.

In addition, there are three essential areas into which evolution cannot move and which evolution cannot solve:

  • It cannot bridge the gap from nothing to something.
  • It cannot bridge the gap from something to life.
  • It cannot bridge the gap between life and humanity, that is self-conscious human life with a volition.

The Bible teaches that the all-wise, all-powerful, eternal God created the universe and all the forms of life in it, including people. So, evolution and creation are two fundamentally competing beliefs about the origin of the universe, life, and mankind.

As noted above, some people speculate that we can believe both the Bible and evolution: the two can be harmonized. Theistic evolutionists say that all living things evolved from an original life form, but God began and directed the process. Progressive creationists claim that, from time to time over a period of billions of years, God intervened to make major changes but then allowed nature to gradually develop what had been made. Such people cannot, of course, take Genesis 1 literally, so they say it is symbol or legend.

Contradictions Between Evolution and the Bible Doctrine of Creation:

Evolution is a major doctrine of unbelievers.
Creation is a fundamental proof of God.

Evolution weakens faith in God, undermines the arguments for God’s existence, and is a fundamental tenet of all unbelievers. True, some people claim to believe evolution and also believe in God. But all unbelievers accept evolution. And believing evolution weakens faith in God.

The Bible repeatedly affirms throughout that the world and the life on it are the result of Divine creation. To deny this denies, not just Gen. 1, but the fundamental essence of the whole Scriptures.

Gen 1:1, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” The passage proceeds to describe the creation day-by-day.

Acts 17:24, “God made the world and everything in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth.”

Heb 1:10, “You, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of Your hands.”

Jer 10:12, “It is He who made the earth by His power, who established the world by His wisdom; and by His understanding He has stretched out the heavens.”

Rom 1:20, “For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and Divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.”

The Bible uses creation as evidence of God’s existence, wisdom, power, etc. To deny creation is to deny one of the fundamental reasons why we should believe in God. Cf. Psa 19:1.

Psa 19:1, “The heavens are telling of the glory of God; and their expanse is declaring the work of His hands.”

See also: Psa 33:6-9; John 1:1-3; Psa 102:25; 89:11; 90:2; 104:5-9, 24-28; 19:1; 24:1, 2; 95:5; 146:6; 136:5-9; 8:3, 6-8; 148:5; Isa 42:5; 45:18; 40:21, 26; Jer 27:5; Heb 1:10; 11:3; Acts 14:15; 2 Peter 3:5; 2 Cor 4:6; Neh 9:6; Psa 100:3; Prov 3:19; Jer 32:17; 51:15; Zech 12:1

Biblical creation teaches that God was directly, personally involved in each step of creation.

Genesis 1 shows that God personally and directly commanded and caused each step-in creation. He spoke and it occurred, etc.

In Genesis 2, He formed man, vs. 7, put him in a garden, vs. 15, gave him instructions, vs. 16f, brought animals for him to name, vs.19f, and created woman from his side, vs. 18-24.

Further, by God’s direct involvement, all kinds of plants and animals were created from the very beginning, vs. 11f, 20f, 24f.

God did not personally make just one or a few simple kinds and then just allow natural processes to take over and gradually produce the other kinds. Rather, He personally spoke into existence all the different kinds.

In Gen 2:1-3, God rested from creation only after He had created all the kinds of living things. Theistic evolution and Progressive Creation have Him resting most of the time, as living things develop. The Bible says He was directly involved throughout, then rested only after all was created!

Psa 33:6, 9, “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their host… 9For He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast.”

Note God’s personal involvement. He spoke and it happened. And this is true of all the host of what was made.

John 1:1-3, vs. 3, “All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being.”

Jesus was involved in every step of creation. Nothing that was made, was made without His involvement. If this is not history, how can we believe the account that follows regarding His life and death?

2 Peter 3:5, “For when they maintain this, it escapes their notice, (they willfully forget), that by the word of God the heavens existed long ago and the earth was formed (SUNISTEMI- set together, combined, associated, united, banded together, etc.) out of water and by water.”

David, John, and Peter confirm what Moses said in Gen. 1. They do not take the accounts as legend or symbols. They do not picture God as starting the basic process and then just letting it run. Rather, they show God’s personal involvement in each step and each thing created. To reject this is to deny the whole Scriptures.

Timothy Keller writes, “For organic life to exist, the fundamental regularities and constants of physics – the speed of light, the gravitational constant, the strength of the weak and strong nuclear forces – must all have values that together fall into an extremely narrow range. The probability of this perfect calibration happening by chance is so tiny as to be statistically negligible…Francis Collins puts it well:

When you look from the perspective of a scientist at the universe, it looks as if it knew we were coming. There are 15 constants – the gravitational constant, various constants about the strong and weak nuclear force, etc. – that have precise values. If any one of those constants was off by even one part in a million, or in some cases, by one part in a million-million, the universe could not have actually come to the point where we see it. Matter would not have been able to coalesce; there would have been no galaxy, stars, planets, or people.” (Language of God, The Reason for God, page 134)

Yet, naturalistic evolution removes God completely from the origin of earth and living things, Theistic Evolution and Progressive Creation seriously distance Him from that process. All such ideas conflict with even the most basic Bible teachings about God’s involvement in creation.

Evolution – Life began from non-living matter by accident.
The Bible – Life came from the living God

It says that life began by accident in a primeval swamp. Yet dead, lifeless matter can only make more dead, lifeless matter.

George Wald, a Nobel Prize winner and head of the department of biology at Harvard, said: “I think a scientist has no choice but to approach the origin of life through a hypothesis of spontaneous generation … One has only to contemplate the magnitude of this task of evolution of primeval life from inorganics to concede that the spontaneous generation of a living organism is impossible. Yet here we are – as a result, I believe, of spontaneous generation.” (quoted in Torch, 7/75, p. 13).

One of the most firmly established laws of science is the Law of Biogenesis, which says that life comes only from living things. There is no evidence that dead, non-living matter can spontaneously generate life.

The Bible agrees with this scientific fact, for it says that life came from the eternally living Creator, cf. also Acts 14:15.

Acts 17:24-29 – God is the giver of life, breath, and all things. In Him we live, and move, and have our being, because we are His offspring.

Lee Strobel in his book “The Case for Faith” noted, “Each cell in the human body contains more information than in all thirty volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica.”

So, we see that evolution contradicts both science and the Bible, since it demands that dead matter must have sometime come to life.

Evolution – All current kinds of life came from previous different kinds.
The Bible – All basic kinds of living things were created at the beginning and reproduce after their kind

Theistic evolutionist Neal Buffaloe wrote that after life somehow began, “species developed through change and the inheritance of change until the present time … virtually all biologists of the present day accept evolution as an explanation for the variety of living forms…” (Gospel Anchor, 7/78, p. 22).

Genesis 1 says living things reproduce after their own kind.

Gen 1:11-12 – God made the kinds of plants at the restoration of planet earth and made them to reproduce after their kind. There is diversity or variation within each kind, allowing for adaptation to environment, yet each kind remains the same kind. This agrees with what we see in nature today, but conflicts with evolution.

Reproduction after the same kind occurs because of the power of seed. Each kind of living thing has its own seed, and science has discovered that each seed has its own unique genes and chromosomes, which determine the kind of plant that will develop from the seed. Therefore, each seed produces the same kind of living thing from which it came, just as Genesis says.

Also, as it was with the plants in Gen 1:21-5, it is so with the fish, birds, and land animals. All the kinds have existed since the beginning, and they always form the same kind of offspring as the parents were. If evolution were true, then given enough time, thistles could produce grapes or even striped bass.

Whether you are atheistic or theistic, evolution simply cannot be reconciled with truth.

Evolution – The universe took billions of years to evolve.
The Bible – All was created in six days

In 1977, the American Humanist Association published a Statement Affirming Evolution as a Principle of Science. It said: “It is also verifiable today that very primitive forms of life, ancestral to all living forms, came into being thousands of millions of years ago.” (Christian Citizen, 5/81, p. 1)

Gen 1:14-19, 2:1-3, tells us that God made the heavens and earth and restored everything in them that we have today in six days, then rested on the seventh day.

If each day were millions of years long, then there would have been millions of years of darkness followed by millions of years of light. Neither plants nor animals could survive such “days.”

We should let the Bible itself convince us what it means. We should never allow unproved human theories to determine how we view the Bible. To do so is to begin the long road to religious liberalism and ultimate rejection of the authority of Scripture.

Evolution – Man came from the animals, so is just an animal.
The Bible – Man is in God’s image, unique from the animals.

Neal Buffaloe also said, “The best evidence indicates that man himself arose from a primate stock which at least 25 million years ago separated from the evolutionary line that produced other living primates… Evolution reduces man to his biological nature to the level of other higher animals.” (Gospel Anchor, 7/78, p. 22)

Richard Leakey, a famous paleontologist, said: “There is no law that declares the human animal to be different as seen in this broad biological perspective, from any other animal.” (Quoted by Bert Thompson, in “Can America Survive the Fruits of Atheistic Evolution?”)

“Few doubt that [man’s] closest living relatives are the apes. On this subject, by the way, there has been too much pussyfooting. Apologists … state or imply that man is not really descended from an ape or monkey at all, but from an earlier common ancestor. In fact, that common ancestor would certainly be called an ape or monkey in popular speech by anyone who saw it. Since the terms ape and monkey are defined by popular usage, man’s ancestors were apes or monkeys (or successively both). It is pusillanimous if not dishonest for an informed investigator to say otherwise.” (George Gaylord Simpson: Evolution: Science Falsely So-called, pp 51,52

The Bible says man was created in God’s image from the dust of the ground, not a lower animal, Gen 2:7.

Then God breathed into the man the breath of lives (NESHAMAH CHAY, with the plural of CHAY meaning, “lives”), that is soul life and spiritual life. If man came from the lower animals, he would already have the breath of life, for they surely have it, Gen 3:19.

Genesis 1:26-28 says man was made in God’s image separately from animals.

Unlike the animals, man was created in the image or likeness of God. As a result, God gave men dominion over the animals. Note that we are not equal with animals, nor are we just advanced animals. We have dominion over the animals, even as we do over the rest of the earth.

What is involved in the “image of God?” It appears that man is similar to God (though not on His level) and unlike animals in the following ways:

The Soul has essence: Self-consciousness, mentality, volition, emotion, conscience.

“After our likeness” means, “a model or pattern.” The Trinity is the model or pattern.

“Image” – TSELEM in the Hebrew means, “shadow image.” The soul of man is the shadow image of God. The pattern is immaterial, the soul is immaterial. It can only be defined by its characteristics, just as God can only be defined by His essence.

Man has self-consciousness. He is aware of his own being, actions, thoughts, and personality. Animals are alive but are not self-aware and do not understand their being.

Man has rational intelligence, mentality. He has ability to reason, invent, communicate, etc., in ways far beyond animals. His ability in this regard allows him to communicate with God and understand God’s purpose for man’s existence.

Man has a will, volition, and a power to choose. He is a free moral agent. He is able to choose between alternatives and determine which course he will pursue. He is therefore accountable before God to make the choices and pursue the goals that God instructs him to.

Man has emotions. He can experience joy, love, anger, hatred, sorrow, etc. The Bible also attributes such feelings to God.

Man has a conscience. He is able, not only to distinguish right from wrong, but also to have an inherent sense of guilt when he has done wrong, and a sense of approval, when he has done right.

Believers also have a regenerated spirit nature, which will be with God in eternity. Cf. John 4:24 to Ecc 3:21; 12:7; etc.

The image of God may involve more than this, but it surely includes all this. In all these ways men are like God, but unlike animals. Cf. Gen 9:6; Psa 8:4-8; Heb 2:6-8; Acts 17:24-29; 1 Cor 11:7; James 3:9.

Evolution – Woman evolved from previously existing animals.
The Bible – God formed woman from the side of man.

Gen 2:21-22 – The Bible says woman was created by a direct act of God. She did not evolve from lower animals. She was formed from matter taken from the side of man, after God had caused the man to sleep.

1 Cor 11:8-9 – The man was not created for the woman, but the woman for the man. Here is an express New Testament confirmation of the Genesis account of creation of woman. She did not evolve from lower animals, but was created for the man as Genesis says.

1 Cor 15:22, 45, 47 and 1 Tim 2:13, likewise, confirm the Genesis account of the creation of the woman.

We must either accept the Bible and reject evolution, or accept evolution and reject the Bible. There can be no compromise or harmonizing them.

Evolution – Like animals, man is wholly material and ceases to exist or continues to evolve after death.
The Bible – Man still exists after death, either in heaven or the Lake of Fire.

Evolution leads to the understanding that when man dies that is the end of his existence. He has no spirit that continues to exist after death. Hence, there is no life after death and no eternal rewards for how we live on earth.

Richard Leakey said: “There is no law that declares the human animal to be different as seen in this broad biological perspective, from any other animal. There is no law that declares the human species to be immortal.” (“Can America Survive the Fruits of Atheistic Evolution?” Bert Thompson)

The Bible teaches in 2 Cor 4:16-5:1 that man has both an inner man and an outer man. When this earthly tabernacle (body) is dissolved, we yet have an eternal home with God in the heavens.

In Mat 22:23-33, Jesus argued for the resurrection of the dead, by showing that men who had died physically were still alive to God. God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. Could this be said regarding animals? Did these dead men pass out of existence like animals do?

In Mat 25:46, describing the judgment, Jesus said the wicked would go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into eternal life. So, there is an eternal reward for those who are righteous, and that reward is eternal life. It is the opposite of eternal punishment for those who are unrighteous, Rom 2:5-11; 1 Thes 4:16-18; 5:9-10; Rev 20:11-15.

1 Cor 15:20-22 contrasts death that came upon all men, as a result of Adam’s sin with, when Jesus comes again and raise us from the dead. But if, as evolution says, there was no real Adam and his conduct did not really bring sin and death into the world, then why should we believe there was a real Jesus who arose and will return to raise us up? Accepting evolution leads logically to a denial of man’s spiritual nature and eternal destiny after this life is over.

Evolution – Death was a necessary part of man’s development.
The Bible – There was no death until after man sinned.

As already noted, evolution says that men evolved from lower animals gradually over millions of years. This means death must have existed among lower animals for thousands of generations and was a necessary part of the process of developing new kinds including man. It follows that the ancestors of men died, and as men developed, they inherited death as a part of the natural process of existence on earth. So, death would not be a punishment for sin but a part of the natural order. The fossil record would be a history of the death of animals and of man’s “early ancestors.”

The Bible teaches that death is a curse, an enemy of man that came as a consequence of sin.

In Gen 1:31, what God made throughout creation was all “very good.” If death existed then, it would be a part of that which was “very good.” But death involves pain, suffering, shedding of blood, disease, accidents, and violence. It means separation. Is all this “very good?”

The Bible presents death as an enemy, a curse, the power of the devil, Gen 2:16-17: 3:17-19; 1 Cor 15:26, 51-57; Heb 2:14-15; Rev 21:4; 22:3.

In Gen 2:16-17; 3:17-19, God said man dies as a result of sin. This includes physical death where man, who had been formed from the dust, would return to the dust cf. Psa 104:29; Ecc 12:7. Later, he was cut off from the tree of life, so he could not live forever, Gen3:22-24.

In 1 Cor 15:21-26, the consequence of death passes on to all people who have lived from Adam and Eve on, but this problem was overcome by Jesus at the Cross, who will return and raise all men from the dead.

God says: “By man came death”, 1 Cor 15:21. But evolution and progressive creation both claim that death existed for millions of years before man sinned, and death was fundamental to man’s development. The effect is either to deny the existence of God, or else to blame God for that which the Bible calls a curse, the enemy of man, and the power of Satan! Once again, evolution and progressive creation cannot be harmonized with Scripture; they deny doctrines taught throughout the Bible.

Evolution – Man has evolved to the pinnacle of his existence.
The Bible – Man has fallen from his original exalted state.

If evolution is true, man is the highest form of life that has evolved – the highest peak of evolutionary development. And it follows that he should be getting even better.

Man was created “very good”, Gen 1:26- 27, 31. He was placed in a garden with all his needs supplied, with no death, suffering, or hardships, Gen 2:7-10. However, the serpent tempted the woman, so she and the man disobeyed God, Gen 3:1-7. As a result, severe curses came on mankind and on the earth. Women had to bear children with pain, Gen 3:16. The earth was cursed, so it would not produce for man as before, Gen 3:17-19. Hence, the whole world is under a curse because of man’s sin, Gen 5:29; Heb 1:10-12; Rom 8:20-22.

Rom 5:12-18, “through one man (Adam, vs. 14) sin entered the world,” and 1 Cor 15:21-22 confirms that the consequence of death passes on to all people who have lived from Adam and Eve on.

Evolution says man has evolved from lower animals to his highest point; therefore, man is better now than he ever has been. However, the Bible repeatedly affirms that, because of sin, man has fallen to an accursed state, not as good as originally. Again, we cannot reject the Genesis account without rejecting the Bible as a whole.

Evolution – Implies there is no real purpose in life.
The Bible – Man was created to serve God and receive God’s blessings.

If evolution is true, then life exists, as a result of a series of accidents in nature. There could not possibly be any real meaning to it. Not all evolutionists accept this conclusion, but many do. And it must be accepted, if evolution occurred by wholly natural processes.

Aldous Huxley, grandson of well-known evolutionist Thomas Huxley, classed himself among those who find “no meaning in the world.” He said, “I had motives for not wanting the world to have meaning; consequently, assumed it had none, and was able without any difficulty to find satisfying reasons for this assumption … For myself, as no doubt for most of my contemporaries, the philosophy of meaninglessness was essentially an instrument of liberation.” (“Can America Survive the Fruits of Atheistic Evolution?” Bert Thompson)

George Gaylord Simpson said, “Man is the result of a purposeless and natural process that did not have him in mind.” (Impact, 6/2001)

Evolutionist Richard Dawkins’ said the characteristics of the universe imply that it has “no design, no purpose, no evil and no good, nothing but pointless indifference” (Impact, 6/2001)

In Ecc 12:13, the whole duty of man is to fear God and keep His commands. In Mat 6:33, we should seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness. And in Rom 12:1-2, we are to “present your bodies a living sacrifice to God.”

If there is a God who made us, then He made us for a purpose, and our responsibility is to determine what the purpose is and to achieve it. The Bible repeatedly confirms this to be the case, but naturalistic evolution denies this and leaves man without reason for life. Cf. Mat 16:24-25; 2 Cor 5:14-15.

Evolution – Implies that man should set his own standards based on human wisdom.
The Bible – Man must depend on the Creator to reveal right from wrong and to provide salvation through Jesus

Huxley said: “Evolution if consistently accepted, makes it impossible to believe the Bible.” (HRQ, p. 63)

He also stated, “I had motives for not wanting the world to have meaning; consequently, assumed it had none, and was able without any difficulty to find satisfying reasons for this assumption … The philosopher who finds no meaning in the world is not concerned exclusively with a problem in pure metaphysics; he is also concerned to prove there is no valid reason why he personally should not do as he wants to do … For myself, as no doubt for most of my contemporaries, … we desired … liberation from a certain system of morality. We objected to the morality, because it interfered with our sexual freedom.”

Robert Ingersoll said: “Morality does not come from the clouds; it is born of human want and human experience.” (HRQ, p. 57)

Prof. S. J. Holmes: “Darwinism, consistently applied would measure goodness in terms of survival value.” (HRQ, p. 59)

Evolutionist George Gaylord Simpson, “Man stands alone in the universe, a unique product of a long, unconscious, impersonal material process with unique understanding and potentialities. These he owes to no one but himself, and it is to himself alone that he is responsible. He is not the creature of uncontrollable and undeterminable forces, but is his own master. He can and must decide his own destiny.” (Thompson)

Harlow Shapley, Director of Harvard Observatory, said: “Our god is humanity; our creed is effective participation in universal evolution.” (Evolution: Science Falsely So-Called, 19th Ed., p. 81).

Belief in evolution tends to lead men to reject the Bible, as a standard and Jesus as the Savior. Instead, it leads men to trust in their own wisdom to know how to live life, set their standards, and solve their own problems.

Evolution convinces us we are the highest wisdom in the universe, so we can direct our lives by our own thinking without revelation from God. In contrast, creation shows that the all-wise Creator is much wiser than we are. The very world He created is, in many ways, beyond our understanding.

Prov 3:5-6, “Trust in the Lord with all your heart, and do not lean on your own understanding; in all your ways acknowledge Him, and He make your paths straight.”

Instead of following human wisdom to deal with life, we should trust in God’s wisdom. Let Him direct our lives. The Bible reveals God’s plan for our lives, it is His standard of right and wrong

“Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved,” Acts 4:12.

When we disobey God, as all people do at times, we have a means of forgiveness. Salvation is only through Jesus. Jesus is not a highly-evolved human. He is the Son of God who came in the flesh to die for our sins. He is the only means of salvation. No one else can match Him now or ever.


Not only is evolution false, it leads men away from the true source of guidance. By leading people to think they can devise their own solutions and there is no higher source, evolution leads men to deny and ignore God’s source of true wisdom, the Bible.

Summary of the fundamental dangers that face anyone who becomes a believer in evolution or who compromises the Bible teaching of creation:

  • Evolution is a major doctrine of unbelievers that undermines faith in God and encourages unbelief.
  • It denies the truth of hundreds of passages throughout the Scriptures regarding creation that God was directly and personally involved in each step of creation.
  • It implies that man is wholly material by accident, no spiritual life
  • It implies all life is a random act by fortuitous events.
  • It implies it took billions of years to occur.
  • It denies man is in the image of God and views us as mere animals.
  • It implies women evolved just as man did, and denies God fashioning her from the man.
  • It implies, like animals, man is wholly material and ceases to exist after death.
  • It denies the fall, and therefore the need for a Savior.
  • It implies man has evolved to the pinnacle of his existence and is not fallen and fallible.
  • It implies that life is without meaning or purpose.
  • It implies that man should set his own standards based on human wisdom.

Any attempt to compromise with evolution leads inevitably to a rejection of Biblical teaching.

The Doctrine of Creation, Chaos, and Restoration

In the Beginning God Created the Heavens and the Earth.

Evolutionists believe the “Big Bang” created the universe out of nothing 10–40 billion years ago; our solar system was formed 5 billion years ago; single-celled organisms formed from an unknown primordial inorganic soup 3–4 billion years ago; multicellular organisms slowly evolved 1 billion years ago; humans evolved from higher life forms 185,000 to 2 million years ago; and modern civilization emerged within the last 5,000–6,000 years.

Yet, creationists believe the straightforward interpretation of Scripture, Gen 1:1, 9-10; Job 38:8-12; Psa 104:2-13.

L.S. Chafer noted, “The revelation regarding Divine creation, incidentally, is not restricted to the early chapters of Genesis, at the beginning of Scripture. The entire Bible is constructed on the divine-creation truth. The Sacred Text not only asserts divine creation at its beginning, but upholds it and proceeds on its sure foundation in every succeeding step where there is unfolding of truth.”

As we have noted, all three members of the Trinity are attributed with the creation of the earth and all its forms of life. Yet, Christ is called out specifically as the Creator. John 1:3, 10; Col 1:15-19; Heb 1:10.

L.S. Chafer also noted, “In itself, the act of creating is an incomparable undertaking. In His creation of material things, God called them into existence out of nothing. Such a declaration is far removed from the evolution notion that nothing has produced something. It is obvious that out of nothing, nothing of itself could arise. The Biblical declaration is rather that out of infinite resources of God, everything has come into existence. He is the Source of all that is. The self-determining will of God has caused the material universe, as stated in Romans 11:36, “For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory forever.” In this Scripture, the creation of all things is predicated of God; but, in Colossians 1:16-17, it is asserted in the same general terms that all things were created by Christ and for Him, that He is before all things and by Him all things consist…. The power to create–whether it be production of a universe, of a new creation, or of a new heaven and a new earth–belongs alone to God.”

Turn to Gen 1:1, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”

“In the Beginning” is the Hebrew noun, RESHITH with the Preposition, Article prefix BA for, “in the.”

RESHITH means, “first, beginning, best/choice part, or chief.” It refers to the “first thing” or “the originating event.” Here it is not speaking of the beginning of eternity, for eternity has no beginning and no end, but of the time of creation of the universe inside of eternity.

The Bible gives us a linear view of history, starting with a real beginning, and including a future consummation, and an end to the history of this world that will bring glory to God and blessing to all believers, as well as judgment to those who reject God’s grace plan of salvation.

The next word “created” is the Hebrew verb BARA in the Qal Perfect. BARA means, “to create, shape, or form.” The QAL indicates God is the one performing the action, i.e., Jesus Christ. And the Perfect means, it was a completed past action.

BARA is one of four Hebrew words used in Gen 1-2 for God’s creative acts. It means, “to create something out of nothing” (ex nihilo), which is in Gen 1:1, and is not used until the introduction of animal and human life in the 5th and 6th days, Gen 1:21, 27. Furthermore, the “something created” is not necessarily visible or observed, i.e. soul life of man.

The use of BARA draws attention to the fact that the creation in the beginning was totally new. There had never been a creation or a created universe before.

The other verbs used to describe the work of the 6 days include:

ASAH, “made.” This word has the concept of building out of something already in existence, Gen 1:7, 16, 25-26, 31; 2:2-4.

YATSAR, “formed or fashioned.” This word is used for fashioning something on the exterior, as a sculptor molding an object, Gen 2:7-8, 2:19.

BANAH, “to build,” used for the creation of the female body only, Gen 2:22.

The use of the latter three words, along with such words as “divide or separate” (BADAL, Gen 1:6, 14, 18), and “set or place” (NATHAN, Gen 1:17) are used elsewhere of work done with existing materials, thus clearly indicating that something tremendous and terrible happened to the initial creation.

“Heavens” is the Hebrew Noun SHAMAYIM in the Masculine Dual, referencing the original first and second heavens.

Click Here to See the: “Heavens” PowerPoint Slides

As noted previously, the first heaven is the atmosphere around planet earth, the second is the stellar universe, and the third is God’s throne room outside of the universe. The third heaven is the “heaven of heavens,” or “highest of the heavens.” Cf. Deut 10:14; 1 Kings 8:27; 2 Chron 2:6; 6:18; Neh 9:6.

L.S. Chafer, “The creation of a universe out of nothing is an achievement so beyond the range of human understanding that it can be received as truth only through a sufficient confidence in, and recognition of, the One who creates. It is written, “Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear” (Heb. 11:3). Faith is the basic requirement; but to the unregenerate man, Almighty God is not sufficiently real to serve as a cause for anything. The Apostle declares, “But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned” (1 Cor. 2:14).”

We know that God is perfect, and His creation of the heavens and the earth was perfect, thus what we read in Genesis 1:2 indicates that something happened to God’s perfect creation.

The Earth was Thrown into Chaos.

Gen 1:2, “The earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters.”

In Gen 1:2, under the inspiration of God the Holy Spirit, Moses employs the masculine singular nouns TOHU, BOHU to express the concept of chaos on the earth, as a result of God’s judgment of the angels.

From verse 2 on, the attention is given to God’s activity in relation to the earth, rather than to the heavens. God does not discuss what exists in the rest of the universe, other than the creation of the stars, sun, and moon. In fact, the Bible as a whole focuses on life here on earth.

In Genesis 1:1, we see God’s perfect original creation. Then in Genesis1:2, we have the “earth (ERETS) was formless and void.”

“Was” is the verb HAYAH, in the QAL Perfect that indicates the present state of the earth that is the result of a preceding situation, namely, the judgment of the fallen angels.

Therefore, we see that the original creation underwent a catastrophic change at some point. This change was due to the rebellion of Satan in eternity past. Therefore, judgment was placed on him and God’s original creation for him and the other angels, of which one third fell along with Satan.

This is seen in two main scriptures of Satan’s rebellion in Isa 14:12-23 and Ezek 28:11-19.

The two interesting Hebrew nouns are first TOHU signifying, “formlessness, confusion, unreality, emptiness,” that is “desolation,” that which is desolate, a chaos, a ruin, etc.

The second is the noun BOHU that means, “emptiness, or that which is empty, void, or waste.”

Interestingly, both of these words are related to judgment and sin. Twice BOHU indicates the result of sin and God’s judgment upon it.

In Isa 34:11, the word describes God’s judgment on Edom as “a heap of stones.”

In Jer 4:23, this word describes the condition of the land after God judged the people of Judah and returned it to an unformed stage as in Gen 1.

Therefore, TOHU and BOHU refer to a confused, chaotic state; inevitably, the result of some cataclysm, and usually one that has been brought on by Divine judgment. cf. Deut 32:10; 1 Sam 12:21; Job 6:18; 12:24; 26:7; Psa 107:40; Isa 40:17; 41:29; 44:9; 45:19; 49:4; 59:4.

Isaiah 45:18, “For thus says the LORD, who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it and did not create it a waste place (TOHU), but formed it to be inhabited), “I am the LORD, and there is none else.”

Jeremiah 4:23, “I looked on the earth, and behold, it was a ruin (TOHU) and a desolation (BOHU); And to the heavens, and they had no light.”

Then we have the noun “darkness,” which is CHOSHEK. It means, “darkness, obscurity.” When used in reference to a literal darkness, the word may refer to the dark part of the twenty-four-hour day, or to an act of judgment, or to a theophany.

  • Also, evil men commit their crimes in darkness, Job 24:16.
  • In the account of the Exodus, darkness came as an act of judgment.
  • It was one of the plagues brought on Egypt, Ex 10:21f.
  • While Israel crossed the Red Sea, the cloud stood between Israel and the Egyptians, giving light to Israel, but keeping the Egyptians in darkness, Ex 14:20.

The earth enshrouded in darkness indicates that the earth was judged by God, since darkness in the Bible is always associated with judgment, sin, and evil, cf. Isa 5:30; 8:22; Ezek 32:7-8; Acts 13:11; Ex 10:21-29; cf. Psa 105:28; Mat 27:45-54; Rev 19:20; 20:10, 14-15; 21:8.

We see in scripture that the word is used to refer metaphorically to “trouble, death, judgment, evil, prison, and hidden things.”

So, once again, we see a word associated with God’s judgment in the Gen 1:2 state of the earth, which was a prison for the fallen angels during their trial.

Gen 1:1-2:3 along with a comparison of Scripture with Scripture, cf. Isa 45:18; Jer 4:23-25; Isa 14:12-14; Ezek 28:12-18, clearly indicates that the earth and all of creation have already undergone 3 phases:

Creation, Gen 1:1.

Chaos, between Gen.1:1 and 1:2; cf. Isa 14:12-14; 45:18; Ezek. 28:12-18; Job 4:18.

Restoration and Creation of Mankind, Gen 1:2b-2:4.

The description of earth, as an empty desolation and having darkness over the surface of the ocean depths, paints a very negative picture, not one of blessing, but instead of cursing.

We would expect that when God creates, there would be light and life, but there is none described in verse 2.

God did not create the earth to be an empty desolation, Isa 45:18, but it became that way because of God’s judgment of the angels in eternity past before mankind was created.

Isa 45:18, “For thus says the LORD, who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it and did not create it a waste place, But formed it to be inhabited), “I am the LORD, and there is none else.”

In addition, as is the case with darkness, in the Bible, the sea is also often associated with evil and judgment.

The Hebrew word for the “deep” is the noun TEHOM that means, “deep, sea, or abyss.”

The account of God’s initial creation of earth and then covering the earth with waters is also seen in Psa 104:5-9.

Psa 104:5-9, “He established the earth upon its foundations, so that it will not totter forever and ever. 6You covered it with the deep as with a garment; the waters were standing above the mountains. 7At Your rebuke they fled, at the sound of Your thunder they hurried away. 8The mountains rose; the valleys sank down to the place which You established for them. 9You set a boundary that they may not pass over, so that they will not return to cover the earth.”

The second and third usages of TEHOM, in scripture, tell of the flood account in Noah’s day, where the Lord judged the earth and covered it once again with water, from the deep / abyss and the skies, Gen 7:11; 8:2.

The earth being completely flooded with water, indicates that the earth was judged by God, since water is commonly associated with judgment, Gen 6-9; cf. 2 Peter 2:5; 3:5-7, (“flood” KATAKLUSOMOS, where we get our word “cataclysm” from).

Gen 9:11, “I establish My covenant with you; and all flesh shall never again be cut off by the water of the flood, neither shall there again be a flood to destroy the earth.”

See also: Ex 15:5 with Psa 106:9, where the Lord drowned the Egyptian army in the Red Sea, covering them in water.

Therefore, we see that like the other three descriptive words of Gen 1:2, (formless- TOHU, void – BOHU, and darkness – CHOSHEK), TEHOM – deep is also used for judgment, cf. Gen 7:11.

Gen 7:11, “In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened.”

Interestingly, in the New Testament the word “abyss” is ABUSSOS, which is used seven times that speaks of the ocean depths where some of the fallen angels are imprisoned, of which some will be released during the Tribulation, especially Abaddon / Apollyon, Luke 8:31; Rom 10:7; Rev 9:11; 11:17; 17:8; 20:1, 3.

Luke 8:31, “They (the legion of demons possessing a man) were imploring Him (Jesus) not to command them to go away into the abyss.”

So, in keeping with the usage of TEHOM, or abyss, as it is employed elsewhere in the Bible, any description of the earth’s surface, as lying under the face of the deep, conveys a very negative picture, not one of blessing, which we should expect from the Lord’s original creation in Gen 1:1, but one of cursing, Gen 8:21.

Gen 8:21, “The LORD smelled the soothing aroma; and the LORD said to Himself, “I will never again curse the ground on account of man, for the intent of man’s heart is evil from his youth; and I will never again destroy every living thing, as I have done.”

Now, in the second half of verse 2, we see the Spirit of God, (RUACH ELOHIM – Holy Spirit), hovering over, (RACHAPH AL), the face (PANIM) of the waters (MAYIM).

Here we have a different word for “water,” the noun MAYIM in the Masculine Dual that means, “fresh water, salt water, and a variety of other fluids.” The dual in Hebrew means two, but many times has become the root word meaning in the singular. But interestingly, what will become two in the 2nd day of restoration is one big ice block at this time. See: Gen 1:6-7; cf. Job 37:10.

Job 37:10, “From the breath of God ice is made, and the expanse of the waters is frozen.”

Most of the time MAYIM is used positively, but sometimes it is used negatively as in “water of the feet, (urine), or figuratively of danger, violence, and transitory things.” Once again, we see a word in Gen 1:2 for a problematic situation on the earth that the Lord is about to rectify.

Therefore, in Gen 1:1-2, we see Creation and Chaos, then in verse 3, the start of Restoration.

Creation. In Gen 1:1, God, (the Lord Jesus Christ), originally created the heavens and the earth out of nothing (BARA).

Chaos. At some point, we have the angelic conflict, and God’s sentencing of Satan and the angels who stayed in rebellion with him, Job 4:18.

Job 4:18, “He puts no trust even in His servants; and against His angels He charges error.” Cf. Isa 14:12-14; Ezek 28:12-18.

This led to the earth becoming “formless and void” (TOHU WAW BOHUchaos and judgment), being covered with “darkness” (CHOSHEK – judgment), and the “deep” (TEHOM – judgment), and with “water” (MAYIM), which ultimately was frozen, due to no light or heat source.

Restoration. Beginning in verse 3 and running through the rest of the chapter, we have God’s restorative acts to the earth and the creation of animal and human life.

By some this is called the “Gap theory,” but we call it, “Creation, Chaos, and Restoration.”

The Gap theory understands the six days of creation as “restoration” following the great cataclysm, which had destroyed the primeval earth.

Creation is different from restoration. Creation is making something out of nothing (BARA), while restoration is fixing something up, after it has been destroyed, (ASAH, YATSAR).

Gen 1:1 is the original creation, inhabited by angels and the dinosaurs, and Gen 1:2 is the result of the judgment given to the fallen angels, due to the angelic rebellion against God; whereas, Gen 1:3-31 is the restoration of planet earth, the result of God granting Satan’s appeal, leading to the creation of mankind to resolve the conflict between God and Satan.

Beginning in Gen 1:3 and running through to verse 31, we have the six-day record of the restoration of the original creation that was judged by God for the rebellion of Satan. This restoration was accomplished in 6 literal 24-hour days.

The Six Days of Restoration and Creation Typology of Christ.

In reviewing the account of the six days of restoration and creation of life, as we know it, we will note the typology of each day regarding God’s plan.

1st Day: The Lord restored light to the earth, Gen 1:3-5.

The restoration of light typifies the incarnation of the Son of God, who is the Light of the world, John 8:12; 9:5.

John 8:12, “Then Jesus again spoke to them, saying, ‘I am the Light of the world; he who follows Me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the Light of life’”.

2nd Day: The Lord restored the atmosphere, Gen 1:6-8.

The insertion of the atmosphere, between the waters, typifies the Cross of Christ that broke down the barrier between God and man, (the ice above and the waters below). The Cross is also a divider of humanity, (typified by the many waters, Num 24:7; 2 Sam 22:17; Rev 17:1).

Eph 2:14, “For He Himself is our peace, who made both groups into one and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall.”

Creation is different from restoration. Creation is making something out of nothing (BARA), while restoration is fixing something up after it has been destroyed, (ASAH, YATSAR).

3rd Day: The Lord restored the dry land by causing the flood waters to gather into one place and brought forth vegetation, Gen 1:9-11.

Click Here to See the: “Ice Shield” PowerPoint Slides

Expanding Earth Theory:

The emergence of dry land and fruit typifies the resurrection of Christ, 1 Cor 15:20-23.

1 Cor 15:20, “But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep.”

4th Day: The Lord restored the stellar universe, Gen 1:14-19.

The fourth day typifies the ascension and session of Christ, John 3:13-21; Eph 4:8-10.

Vs. 16, Both the Sun and moon govern. Jesus Christ controls history, and man was given dominion over animal life, Psa 47:5; Acts 2:34-35; cf. Gen 1:26.

The sun typifies Christ and the moon typifies the church. Just as the moon reflects the light of the sun, so the church is to reflect the Light, i.e. the character of Christ.

5th Day: The Lord created sea and air life, Gen 1:20-23.

This tells us of “creation” once again. Here BARA is used for the first time since Gen 1:1. It calls our attention to the Deity of Jesus Christ, who is the God / Man in Hypostatic Union, John 10:30; Mat 1:18-23, (Immanuel means, “God with us.”) Note also that the first created life was in the two places previously signifying His judgment; this shows the grace of God.

6th Day: The Lord created man, Gen 1:24-31.

Creating “man” in God’s own image typifies the humanity of Christ, as the second Adam, who would come in like form as the First Adam to pay for our sins, Rom 5:12, 14; 1 Cor 15:45.

As for the creation of the woman, as Adam’s bride was taken out of his side while he slept, Gen 2:21, so too is the Second Adam’s bride, the Church. This is seen in our Lord’s wounded side and His three-day sleep in the tomb, John 19:34. Therefore, Jesus can say of His bride, the church, as Adam said of Eve, “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh,” Gen 2:23. The church is so intimately united with Christ, through the means of grace, that she is one flesh with Him, Rom 7:1-6; Eph 2:10; 5:31-32 Rev 19:6-9; 21:9.

So, combined, the sixth day typifies the completion of the new creation, the church in resurrection bodies ruling over the earth with Christ during His millennial reign.

7th Day: The Lord Rested from His Work, Gen 2:3.

This typifies our eternal rest in Christ Jesus, Heb 4:1-4, 9-10.

As we have noted, “creation” is different from “restoration,” since the former is making something out of nothing; whereas, the latter is fixing something up after it has been destroyed.

In the restoration of planet earth and the subsequent creation of animal and human life in Gen 1, we have a number of phrases in each day of creation such as, “and God said,” which give us a highly-structured series of succinct and formulaic sentences expressing the creative commands of God.

Each Command Tells Us Something about God and His Plan.

  • An announcement, “God said,” (ELOHIM AMAR).

Identifying God as the true and only Creator. Note that in Gen 1:1, there is no argument for the existence of God to start things off. That is because God does not have to justify His existence to anyone!

Isa 45:18: “For thus says the LORD, who created (BARA) the heavens [He is the God who formed (YATSAR) the earth and made it, He established (KUN) it and did not create it a waste place, but formed it to be inhabited], “I am the LORD, and there is none else.”

  • A creative command, “Let there be,” (HAYAH – QAL Passive. QAL Perfect in verse 2, “was”).

Identifying the Sovereignty of God in His restorative and creative acts. As we have been noting in Prov 3:19-20, “The LORD by wisdom founded the earth, by understanding He established the heavens. 20By His knowledge the deeps were broken up and the skies drip with dew.”

Therefore, by the spoken Word of Christ Jesus, the world was created, Psa 33:6-9.

Psa 6:9, “For He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast.”

  • A summary word of accomplishment, “And it was so,” (HAYAH – QAL Imperfect), or on day 4 “God created,” vs. 21.

Identifying the completed work of restoration and creation, nothing needed to follow. Thereby, He nullifies the false doctrines and theories of our existence and creation, like evolution.

  • A descriptive word of accomplishment, “The earth brought forth.”

Identifying the exactness and perpetuation of His plan, with the result that everything has a purpose in the fulfillment of His plan.

  • An evaluative approval, “It was good,” (TOB pronounced TOV – “good, pleasant, useful, proper”), EXCEPT in the creation of the atmosphere, where He only gave a statement of accomplishment saying, “and it was so.”

Identifying His satisfaction in all of His work.

Psa 145:9-10, “The LORD is good to all, and His mercies are over all His works. 10All Your works shall give thanks to You, O LORD, and Your godly ones shall bless You.”

The idea of “goodness” in Hebrew is “what fulfills one’s expectations.” It refers to something that is appropriate, pleasing, and beneficial. God’s restoration and creation where just that.

The one exception was the atmosphere on day 2, which would be inhabited by the fallen angels, and represented the necessity to pay for sin.

  • A concluding temporal framework, for example numbering each day.

Identifying the Divine order and completeness of all of His creation. Nothing is wanting and nothing is lacking, the whole cycle is complete.

In addition, three times He gave a descriptive blessing, “God blessed.” The first two had to do with creation of life, vs. 22, 28, and the last was the seventh day of rest, Gen 2:3.

Also, in Gen 1:10, the phrase “and God called” identifies His Lordship. He is the Lord of all. This is also seen by the Lord granting specific lordship to the man over all plant and animal life, Gen 1:28-30, and as Adam was allowed to name the animals in Gen 2:19. Therefore, man has lordship or dominion over the environment and animal kingdom.

Summary of Creation Thus Far:

  • The creation of the universe did not occur over a long period of time, i.e. the Archaeozoic through the Cenozoic ages of geology. Original creation was instantaneous from the hand of God, and occurred as rapidly as you can pronounce the word “creation” or snap your fingers. Psa 19:1; 33:6; Heb 11:3; 2 Peter 3:5.
  • The six-day period recorded in Genesis 1:3-31 is not a description of original creation. This refers to the preparation of the earth for habitation, coupled with the creation of that which would inhabit it.
  • The time of the creation of the heavens and earth in Gen 1:1 is unknown. The antiquity of the universe is unknown. But what is known is that God did it! See: Isa 45:18
  • We know that the earth was not created imperfect, Deut 32:4.

Deut 32:4, “The Rock! His work is perfect, for all His ways are just; a God of faithfulness and without injustice, righteous and upright is He.”

Yet in Gen 1:2, the earth “had become” something it was not before. The Hebrew says, TOHU WAW BOHU, “formless and void,” that is, “desolation and empty.” Not what you would expect from a perfect creative God.

  • After the creation of angels and before the creation of man, there was an indefinite period of time in which TOHU WAW BOHU Why? Angels who were also created perfect, had negative volition and rebelled against God, (Satan’s fall – Ezek 28:15-16; Isa 14:12-17). The angelic conflict and God’s judgment of the rebellious angels resulted in chaos: “and darkness was upon the face of the deep.”
  • The earth was in a totally helpless, bound state. There was no way that anything could evolve. No possibility for micro-organisms to become man, no possibility for any evolution! The earth was in darkness, covered by an ice pack, cf. Job 37:10. There was TOHU WAW BOHU, and there was no longer animal or plant life. There was nothing! And that “nothing” would have remained except for the grace of God! The very restoration of the earth was grace.

Why Evolution is Absolutely Impossible, the Laws of Thermodynamics.

That brings us to a discussion of why evolution is absolutely impossible, the Laws of Thermodynamics.

The Laws of Thermodynamics disqualify the theory of evolution as a cause of life on earth. Thermodynamics is the physics of the relationship between heat and other forms of energy.

The Law of Thermodynamics is a law governing the relations between states of energy in a closed system (i.e., a specific entity or object or region in space). There are three principles governing the relationships between different forms of energy.

Before we begin I want to give you the definition for a “law” versus a “theory.”

A “law” in science, physics, or mathematics is “a general principle or rule that is obeyed in all cases to which it is applicable. It is a formulation of the observed recurrence, order, relationship, or interaction of natural phenomena.”

A “theory” is “a systematically organized knowledge applicable in a relatively wide variety of circumstances. It is a system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure. It is abstract reasoning, speculation, hypothesis, or supposition.”

So, you can see there is quite a difference between a “law” and a “theory.” So, let’s begin by understanding the four laws of thermodynamics, the first two are applicable to our doctrine.

The first law of thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy) states that the change in the internal energy of a system is equal to the sum of the heat added to the system and the work done on it. Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The total amount of energy and matter in the Universe remains constant, merely changing from one form to another. The First Law of Thermodynamics (Conservation) states that energy is always conserved; it cannot be created or destroyed. In essence, energy can be converted from one form into another. Equivalently, perpetual motion machines of the first kind are impossible.

The second law of thermodynamics states that heat cannot be transferred from a colder to a hotter body within a system without net changes occurring in other bodies within that system; in any irreversible process, entropy, (a lack of order or organization in a system), always increases. It states that spontaneous natural processes increase entropy overall, or in another formulation that heat can spontaneously be conducted or radiated only from a higher-temperature region to a lower-temperature region, but not the other way around. In all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state. In the process of energy transfer, some energy will dissipate. Equivalently, perpetual motion machines of the second kind are impossible. For example:

  • A watch spring-driven watch will run until the potential energy if the spring is converted, and not again until energy is reapplied to the spring to rewind it.
  • A car that has run out of gas will not run again until you walk 10 miles to a gas station and refuel the car.
  • Once the potential energy locked in carbohydrates is converted into kinetic energy (energy in use or motion), the organism will get no more until energy is input again. As entropy is a measure of disorder: keep in mind that cells are NOT disordered and so have low entropy. Therefore, the flow of energy maintains order and life and entropy wins when organisms cease to take in energy and die.

The third law of thermodynamics (Nernst heat theorem) states that it is impossible to reduce the temperature of a system to absolute zero in a finite number of steps.

In addition, there is Zeroth law of thermodynamics which is the principle that if two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with a third body, then the first two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other

For the purposes of refuting evolution, the first two laws are key. The following are several principles taken from Henry M. Morris’ work, “Seven Reasons for Opposing Evolution” that indicate why evolution is impossible.

“All of the various processes of the universe, whether physical, biological, geological, chemical, or of any other field of science, must operate within the framework of just two basic laws. These are the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the laws of energy conservation and deterioration. They define the state of the measurable universe as one of quantitative stability and qualitative decay.

Nothing is now being either created or destroyed, but that which presently exists is becoming less ordered and less useful, drifting down toward an ultimate condition of quiescence (no activity) and death.

Every type of process in the universe involves interchanges of energy. The study of these processes, the delineating of their characteristics and the measurement of their rates of activity are precisely the domain of science.

As such, science is simply the study of energy and its transformations from one kind into another. Even matter is a form of energy, so that actually everything in the observable universe is energy! And always, no matter what the particular process may be, it operates within the framework of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. There is no known exception to this generalization.

These two laws are fundamentally and basically in opposition to the entire philosophy of evolution. Evolution says that present processes are the same as those by which the universe came into existence and is thus still coming into existence.

But the first law of thermodynamics says that no energy (and this includes everything) is now coming into existence. No energy is being either created or destroyed.

Furthermore, evolution says that there is a universal law, whereby things tend to become progressively more organized and more complex. The nonliving becomes life; elementary particles become atoms, and atoms become molecules; simple life forms develop into complex animals; beasts evolve into men, etc.

But the second law of thermodynamics says that there is a universal law operating throughout the observable universe, whereby everything tends to become less organized (entropy), to become disordered, to decay, and die.

In a scientific sense, all of this progress toward decay results from the fact that, in the energy exchanges comprising the particular process, some of the energy is converted into heat energy, which cannot be recovered and reconverted into other forms.

Thus, the universe as a whole, at least in so far as science can measure it, is proceeding inexorably to an ultimate “heat death,” in which no more energy conversions, and thus no more useful work, will be possible.

(This is also seen when the Lord kicked Adam and woman out of the Garden of Eden and stopped them from continuing to eat from the Tree of Life. As a result, physical death was inevitable, entropy. Yet, if they continued to receive new life giving energy from that tree, they would have lived forever. This note added by Pastor Jim Rickard)

There is thus a universal law of change in the world, as the evolutionist contends, yet the reality is that this is a change downward, not upward.

The principle of evolution is precisely the converse of the second law of thermodynamics, and therefore both cannot simultaneously be true.

Locally and temporarily, there may be an excess inflow of ordering energy into a particular system, so that there appears to be growth and development for a while, but invariably this is only local and temporary, and the decay principle wins out in the end.

Thus, true science does not prove evolution at all, as often claimed, but rather disproves it. Science deals only with present processes, and present processes are not processes of origination and integration but rather of conservation and disintegration. The true scientist, if he is really true to his scientific ideals, ought therefore certainly to reject the idea of evolution.” (Henry Morris, “Seven Reasons for Opposing Evolution.”)

Two articles found on the web that try to refute Morris, interestingly condemn their own argument, yet they staunchly defend the theory of evolution.

Frank Steiger states, “On the other hand, thermodynamics does not rule out the possibility of intelligent design; it is just simply not a factor with respect to the calculation of thermodynamic probability. Considering the earth as a system, any change that is accompanied by an entropy decrease (and hence going back from higher probability to lower probability) is possible as long as sufficient energy is available. The ultimate source of most of that energy, is of course, the sun.” (The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Evolution, and Probability. Copyright © 1995-1997 by Frank Steiger)

Dave Rothstein states, “The idea of evolution is simply that random genetic mutations will occasionally occur that lead an individual organism to have some trait that is different from that of its predecessors. Now, it is true that these mutations, being random, would probably tend to increase the “entropy” of the population as a whole if they occurred in isolation (i.e., in a closed system). That is, most of the mutations will create individual organisms that are less “ordered” (i.e., less complex) and only some will create individual organisms that are more complex, so overall, the complexity goes down. However, evolution does not take place in a closed system, but rather requires the existence of outside forces – i.e., natural selection.” (January 2003, Dave Rothstein)

These arguments note that the sun and natural selection are the energy sources that provide for evolution. Yet they still do not have a fundamental answer for, “Where did the sun come from?” or “Where did nature come from that provided for its selection?”

L.S. Chafer stated, “Godless scientists boast, of course, that they accept nothing which is not demonstrated by proved facts; but when approaching the problem of origins, they either advance the most unproved, grotesque, and absurd speculations or else withdraw into the awkward silence to which reasonable men flee when they realize that they do not know.”

Most people believe in evolution, because most people believe in evolution! They are evolutionists, because they are conformists.

Most people who believe in evolution, no matter how much education they may have, will be found to have only a vague understanding of the real evidences for and against evolution.

Similarly, most people have even less understanding of the tremendous weight of evidence supporting the inspired accuracy of the Scriptures, and their clear teaching of special creation.

They have not studied the issue for themselves, but have simply been pressured into believing it. They will not “study to show themselves approved unto God,” 2 Tim 2:15.

They “love the praise of men more than the praise of God,” John 12:43, and they prefer to be “conformed to this world,” Rom 12:2.

As Elijah once said to the people of God in 1 Kings 18:21, “How long will you hesitate between two opinions? If the LORD is God, follow Him; but if Baal, follow him.”

The Holy Spirit’s Role in the Restoration of Earth and Creation of Life.

As we have noted previously, Jesus Christ is given credit a majority of the time in scripture as being the Creator of the heavens and the earth, Col 1:16-17.

Col 1:16, “For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things have been created through Him and for Him.”

Yet, as we have also noted, all three members of the Trinity were involved in creation and restoration, noted by the use of the word ELOHIM, and other scriptures.

Here we are focusing on the Holy Spirit’s active role in creation, as noted in scripture. As you will see, there is much overlap in the creative accounts between the members of Trinity, so keep in mind that the areas in which I am pointing out the Spirit’s role does not nullify nor diminish the roles of the Father or Son, as previously noted in this doctrine.

We begin with Gen 1:2 where it says, “the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters.”

“Moving” is RACHAPH in the Hebrew PIEL. In the Piel, the meaning is, “to hover over, to cherish, or to brood over, (As a mother hen laying on her eggs, or an eagle who broods over her chicks.”) Deut 32:11

Deut 32:11, “Like an eagle that stirs up (arouses, awakens) its nest, that hovers over its young, he spread His wings and caught them, He carried them on His pinions.”

So, we see the Spirit of God hovering or brooding over the shapeless mass of the earth, and guarding it just prior to its restoration. This guarding may have been to ensure the fallen angels imprisoned inside of the earth remained there.

But we also see Him brooding in the sense of an egg about to hatch. That is, the earth was about to be restored as God hatched new life on earth.

Then in Gen 1:3, at the command of Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit is ready to act as He heeds the commands of restoration and creation in the six days. At the Word of Christ, He molds it into the predesigned form according to God the Father’s plan.

As light was created in day one, and the atmosphere formed in day two, we could say the Holy Spirit had incubated the ice pack, providing the necessary heat so that the waters would separate from the waters and the atmosphere would be created.

As I noted previously, the Hebrew Jussive of the Imperfect Tense in its basic meaning indicates a desire for action from a third person subject. When ELOHIM commanded, “let there be” in the Qal (Active) Jussive of HAYAH, the Lord is calling each element into action, yet the element cannot act or become on its own, so it needs an agent. The agent producing the action is then the third member of the Trinity, God the Holy Spirit who brings about the desired result.

In each command, beginning with “let,” Gen 1:3, 6, 9, 14, 20, 26, we have the Qal Jussive, with the exception of verse nine that is the Niphal (Passive) Jussive. Therefore, as the elements are called into action, the Holy Spirit is part and parcel in its happening.

This comes back to the opening statement regarding the Holy Spirit, as moving over or brooding over the earth, as the grace of God is restoring it for the creation of life.

What the Holy Spirit did for the earth in restoration, He does for the individual in regeneration. The condition of chaotic earth was like the present condition of unregenerate man.

Like the ruined primitive earth, man under spiritual death is enshrouded in darkness, 2 Cor 4:3-4.

2 Cor 4:3-4, “And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing, 4in whose case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.”

And only the regenerating ministry of God the Holy Spirit can bring life through relationship with God, John 3:5; Titus 3:5.

Titus 3:5, “He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit.”

“Regeneration” is the Greek Noun PALIGGENSIA, a compound word from PALIN meaning, “again” in regard to time, and GENESIS, that means, “origin or birth.” This is another reason why we call being saved, “born again.”

Therefore, salvation brings the believer out of darkness into light, Luke 1:79; 1 Peter 2:9, just as the planet earth was brought out of darkness into light by God, including the Holy Spirit.

Gen 1:4, “And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.”

Darkness belongs to the devil. The devil cannot produce light, create life, nor can he provide regeneration. The devil can do nothing constructive for this earth or for the universe. So, there must be a separation, and we find it in the next phrase, “And ELOHIM divided.” The Hiphil Imperfect of BADHAL means, “to cause to separate.” “ELOHIM caused to separate the light from the darkness.”

God does not obliterate darkness at this point, but allows it to coexist, so that there will always be a perfect illustration of good and evil.

If God had obliterated the darkness, He would also have obliterated the fallen angels and terminated the angelic conflict.

It was God’s purpose that man’s volition would resolve the angelic conflict; therefore, man must always have the opportunity to choose between the Kingdom of Darkness and the Kingdom of Light.

Keep in mind that the darkness was caused by the angelic fall and not by God. God corrected the situation with light, just as God would solve the sin problem with salvation in Christ who is the “Light of the world”, John 8:12; 9:5.

In Psalm 33:6 and 104:30, we have further evidence of the creative action of God the Holy Spirit.

Psa 33:6, “By the word of the LORD (YHWH) the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their host.”

The word for “breath” is RUACH, the same word translated “Spirit” in Gen 1:2. So, we see God the Holy Spirit acting upon the command of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Psa 104:30, “You send forth Your Spirit (RUACH), they are created; and You renew the face of the ground.”

This is not speaking of original creation but the giving of life daily, especially to the animal kingdom in its reproductive action. This tells us that the Holy Spirit continues to “breath life” into each animal as it is born; otherwise it is not born.

The First Person of the Trinity (God the Father) is commonly regarded as the designer in the original sense.

The Second Person (Jesus Christ) as the one who furthers and assists the execution of the design.

And the Third Person (The Holy Spirit) as the one who finishes and brings to final conclusion the work of God in point.

This may be illustrated in the doctrine of salvation in which: The Father wills, the Son makes possible through His death, and the Holy Spirit brings to final execution in the lives of the elect.

Bear in mind that no work of one person of the Trinity is accomplished apart from the other persons of the Godhead.

In Job 33:4, Elihu bears witness of the Holy Spirit in creation, “The Spirit (RUACH) of God has made me, and the breath (NESHAMAH) of the Almighty gives me life.”

The Breath of Lives.

In Job 33:4, we saw the Holy Spirit’s role in the restoration of the earth and the subsequent creation of life.

Job 33:4, “The Spirit (RUACH) of God has made me, and the breath (NESHAMAH) of the Almighty gives me life (CHAYAH).”

Notice that both Hebrew words for “breath” are used, RUACH and NESHAMAH, and the word for “life,” CHAYAH.

RUACH means, “spirit, breath, wind, or mind.” The basic idea of RUACH is air in motion, “breath” or “wind.” It is the major word for wind in the Old Testament. From this meaning, it came to be used of enabling or empowering for action. It is also used to refer to invisible, powerful, supernatural beings, i.e., God, angels, and evil spirits, and is used for the Holy Spirit. Finally, it often refers to the inner person of humans, especially their deepest emotions, motivations, and dispositions, the source of willpower. In Job 33:4, it refers to the Holy Spirit as the One who made (ASAH) mankind and gives him life.

The use of the word “spirit” – RUACH, in relation to man in the Old Testament, reminds us that we are more than physical material and biology. We have a connection to the spiritual realm and the supernatural, with a capacity and a need to fellowship with God.

Furthermore, God wants to fill our lives and empower us to accomplish His will and purpose in this world, through His gift of the presence of His Holy Spirit, given by grace through faith in Jesus Christ.

NESHAMAH means, “breath, blowing, or spirit.” In Job 33:4, as also in Gen 2:7, it refers to the giving of life by the Holy Spirit to man. It is also used in reference to both animal and human life, Gen 7:22.

Gen 7:22, “Of all that was on the dry land, all in whose nostrils was the breath (NESHAMAH) of the spirit (RUACH) of life (CHAYAH), died.”

It overlaps at times with NEPHESH – “life” and RUACH – “spirit,” as in Job 32:8, “breath and life” are said to give understanding.

Job 32:8, “But it is a spirit (RUACH) in man, and the breath (NESHAMAH) of the Almighty gives them understanding.”

In John 16:13-14, we see the work of the Holy Spirit having the distinctive characteristic of being designed to bring glory to the Father and the Son, when He gives the believer understanding of God’s Word.

Christ said of the Spirit in John 16:13b-14, “He will not speak on His own initiative, but whatever He hears, He will speak; and He will disclose to you what is to come. 14He will glorify Me, for He will take of Mine and will disclose it to you.”

Here we see the role of the Holy Spirit in regard to the Church Age believer’s spiritual life. That role is to take what is Christ’s, in this case “His Word,” and teach it to the positive believer. The Spirit’s ultimate goal in all His work is to “glorify” Jesus Christ.

Now, if we take this same scenario and apply it to creation by substituting “create” for “speak,” it would read:

“He will not create on His own initiative, but whatever He hears, He will create; and He will create for you what is to come. He will glorify Me, for He will take of Mine and will create it for you.”

The Holy Spirit’s role, as a member of the Trinity, is to bring order to all of God’s designs, including creation.

As we see in Gen 2:7, “Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.”

Therefore, the Holy Spirit is the “Giver of Life,” via NESHAMAH CHAYYIM, “breath of lives,” and shapes creation to achieve its significant purpose of bringing all glory to God.

The phrase “Breath of Life” is used four times in scripture, Gen 2:7; 6:17; 7:15; Rev 11:11.

  • The first time it is used is in Gen 2:7, where we have the creation of Adam and the woman, first noted in Gen 1:26-27 and then amplified in Gen 2:7, “Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath (NESHAMAH) of life (CHAYYIM); and man became a living being.”
  • In Gen 6:17, it reads, “Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.”

Here “breath” is RUACH, as noted above, and is typically used for the Holy Spirit in the Old Testament. Here it is speaking of both animal and human life. Therefore, God used a different word for “breath” when speaking of life, including the animal kingdom in this phrase.

  • In Gen 7:15, it reads, “So they went into the ark to Noah, by twos of all flesh in which was the breath of life.”

“Breath” is once again RUACH, because it is specifically referring to animals only, who do not have the unique life that man has.

Therefore, in Gen 6:17 and 7:15, we have RUACH versus NESHAMAH, as in Gen 2:7, because animal life is included.

Interestingly, in the LXX of the Hebrew Old Testament, in Gen 6:17 and 7:15, the Greek word for “breath” is PNEUMA, but in Gen 2:7, the word is PNOE, which means, “a blowing, wind, or breath.” There too we have a differentiation between animal and human life.

  • Then in the only occurrence of the New Testament, Rev 11:11, it reads, “But after the three and a half days, the breath (PNEUMA ZOE) of life from God came into them, and they stood on their feet; and great fear fell upon those who were watching them.”

It is speaking of the Two Witnesses of the Tribulation who are killed, lay in the streets for three day, and then are resuscitated to life by the Holy Spirit.

“Breath” is the Greek noun PNEUMA in the Singular that means, “wind, spirit, or breath,” which is typically used for the Holy Spirit in the New Testament. It is used here to indicate the giver of that life, which is by the power of God the Holy Spirit. The alternate used in the LXX PNOE is never used for the Holy Spirit, so it is not used here.

In all three Hebrew references for the word “life” are the plural of CHAY, which is CHAYYIM, that means, “lives, living, alive, or fresh,” and in Rev 11:11, it is ZOE that means, “life or alive.”

Now back in Gen 2:7, “Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives (trichotomous life); and man became a living being (CHAY, the adjective of CHAYAH – NEPHESH).”

That is, in the body of the first man formed (YATSA’ed) from the dust of the ground, the Holy Spirit breathed into his, APH, “nostrils or face,” the breath of lives; creating physical, soul, and spiritual life, the trichotomous man.

John Owen in speaking of this writes: “Into this formed dust, ‘God breathed the breath of life’; a vital immortal spirit; something of himself; somewhat immediately of his own; not of any pre-created matter. Thus, man became a middle creature, between the angels above, and the sensitive animals below. His body was formed as the beasts from matter; his soul was an immediate production of Divine power, as the angels were.” (John Owen, “A Discourse Concerning the Holy Spirit.”)

NEPHESH means “soul, breath, or life.” Traditionally, it is translated “soul” in many passages, going back to the Greek translators of the Septuagint around 200 B.C., who used the word PSUCHE. While the soul as a spiritual being inside the human body is often intended, the whole person is referred to.

It is the soul that makes up the person, not the body. So, Adam became a living soul, that is, “alive!”


There is no soul separate from God’s breathing of life into physical flesh, according to the Old Testament. Since the creation of Adam and the woman, this occurs each time a baby exits the womb and receives the breath of life from the Holy Spirit.

So, once again, we understand Psa 104:30, “You send forth Your Spirit, they are created; and You renew the face of the ground.”

The first use of NEPHESH is in Gen 1:20, where it refers to all living “creatures.” Also in Gen 1:21; 1:24; 2:19.

This use of NEPHESH for animal life other than human is only found a few times in the Old Testament; however, it shows that God created living creatures with a body and pronounced them good.

Man was Created in the Image and Likeness of God.

As we conclude our series on “Creation versus Evolution,” there is one more topic we will discuss found in Gen 1:26-27; 2:7, the creation of man in the “image and likeness of God.”

The creation of man was:

  • Planned by God, Gen 1:26.
  • Direct, Special, and Immediate, Gen 1:27; 2:7.
  • It Involved Two Facets. God used the dust from the ground into which He breathed the breath of life.

This caused man to become animate. The same phrase, “living being/creature” is also used of animals, Gen 1:21, 24; 2:19, but since animals were not created in the image and likeness of God, as was man, there exists a clear distinction between animals and man. In the case of Eve, God first took a rib from Adam’s side and then fashioned or built it into a woman, Gen 2:21-23. God constructed Eve after taking the parts from Adam’s side.

One property that is most often overlooked by the evolutionist in the creation of man is the essence or ingredient that “makes something alive,” “a living being,” which cannot be explained by referring to its chemical or genetic properties.

Genesis 2:7 records that God first formed (ASAH’ed) man out of “the dust of the ground,” and then “breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living soul (NEPHESH or PSUCHE in the LXX).” Cf. Job 33:4.

Job 33:4, “The Spirit (RUACH) of God has made me, and the breath (NESHAMAH) of the Almighty gives me life (CHAYAH).”

If all it took were the right chemical ingredients to produce life, we should routinely see dead organisms springing to life, yet we do not.

In addition, energy by itself cannot cause a dead creature to come alive. It takes more than energy, it takes order and organization and the “breath of life.”

Job 34:14-15, “If He should determine to do so, if He should gather to Himself His spirit (RUACH) and His breath (NESHAMAH), 15All flesh would perish together, and man would return to dust.”

By the Laws of Thermodynamics, we know that chemical compounds ultimately break apart into simpler materials, and they do not become more complex. Outside forces (for instance, man’s design of automobiles, computers, and technology) can increase order for a time, through the expenditure of relatively large amounts of energy, and through the input of design. However, such reversal cannot last indefinitely.

Once any preprogrammed force is released, (the creation of man for example), processes return to their natural direction, greater disorder or chaos. At that time, energy is transformed into lower levels of free energy, that is, energy that is less available for further work.

So, we see that “man would return to dust.” Chaos would return to chaos, because the tendency of all natural systems is to become simpler and disorderly with time.

As noted previously, the Law of Thermodynamics is in complete contradiction to the doctrine of evolution that says, “order came from chaos all by itself.

Yet to the contrary, order did come from chaos but not by itself. It came by means of an agent, that being ELOHIM, the all-powerful, all knowing, Sovereign God, who gave us life via NESHAMAH.

God, ELOHIM, create life in man by His NESHAMAH that gave man physical, soul, and spiritual life.

“And God said, let Us make man…” There are four Hebrew verbs which are used in placing man and woman on this earth, in their physical bodies, with souls inside their bodies:

ASAH: To manufacture something out of existing materials, used when God was contemplating the making of man, Gen 1:26. Cf. Gen 5:1; Isa 43:7; 57:16.

BARA: To make something out of nothing (ex nihilo); used for the creation of the invisible essence of man, Gen 1:27; 5:1-2; Isa 43:7.

YATSAR: To form or fashion, used for fashioning something on the exterior, as a sculptor molding an object. Used for the creation of the male body, Gen 2:7, Isa 43:7.

BANAH: To build, used for the creation of the female body from Adam’s rib, Gen 2:22.

Isa 43:7, “Even every one that is called (QARA) by My name: for I have created (BARA) him for My glory, I have formed (YATSAR) him; yea, I have made (ASAH) him.”

As used in Gen 1 for creation and restoration, in Isaiah we have three of the Hebrew verbs (BARA, YATSAR, ASAH), referring to the creation of the first man, Adam. A literal translation of this verse should read: “Even every one that is called by my name: for I, Jesus Christ, have created out of nothing the soul of man for my glory, I have fashioned the outer features of his body; yea, I have made his body out of the existing materials of the chemicals of the ground.”

Therefore, in Gen 1:26, God contemplated ASAH’ing man and then we see the actual formation of the physical body, that came from the dust of the ground, in Gen 2:7 with the word YATSAR.

Gen 1:26 is the contemplation of man. Gen 2:7 is the literal act of making man’s physical body.

Chemically science has recognized that sixteen elements of the soil are represented in the human body; calcium, carbon, chlorine, fluorine, hydrogen, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, sulphur. The vital minerals are calcium, iron, potassium, magnesia, sodium, and silicon. All of these minerals are present in organic form and compose nearly six per cent of the body, the remainder being of water, carbon, and gases.

So, once again, we see that science reiterates the Biblical disclosure that the human body is “of the earth, earthy”, 1 Cor 15:47-49, and the spirit of man, like a “treasure,” is contained in “earthen vessels”, 2 Cor 4:7.

Of solemn importance are the Scriptures that tell us man’s body returns to the dust from which it was originally derived, Gen 3:19; Eccl 3:20; 12:7.

Gen 3:19, “By the sweat of your face you will eat bread, till you return to the ground, because from it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return.”

Eccl 3:20, “All go to the same place. All came from the dust and all return to the dust.”

Eccl 12:7, “Then the dust (biological life) will return to the earth as it was, and the breath (soul life) will return to God who gave it.”

Then in Gen 1:27, ELOHIM BARA’ ed man. Here we have the word that means, “to create something out of nothing.” This is referring to the soul and spirit of man, which too was contemplated by ELOHIM in Gen 1:26.

From the elements of the ground, our body was made, but out of nothing, our souls and spirits are created.

BARA indicates the invisible essence of the soul that truly makes you who you are. It consists of self-consciousness, mentality, volition, emotion, and conscience. All of these together make up a distinct personality.

Everyone, male and female, has the same characteristics of the soul. We all have:

Mentality, a left and right lobe.
Conscience, your norm and standard in your right lobe.
Self-Consciousness, self-awareness.
Volition, the ability to make decisions.
Emotions, with which to appreciate things in life and with which to respond.

The Old Sin Nature that is actually part of the body was not created at this time, and therefore is not an issue at this point.

The word “man” is ADAM in the Hebrew. The noun ADAM, by itself, refers to male and female, that is, to the human race. Just as we would say homo sapiens or mankind.

There is also a proper noun for ADAM, and when the noun is connected with the definite article HA as in HA ADAM, it refers to the first man and the original creation by God.

Therefore, in Gen 1:26f, the literal translation is, “And ELOHIM said, let Us manufacture the HUMAN RACE.”

Then notice how all the pronouns are in the 1st Person, Common, Plural. “Let Us (1CP) make man in Our (1CP) image, according to Our (1CP) likeness…” Here we clearly see the Trinity in plain view.

Next, we have two interesting words, “image” and “likeness.”

“Image” is the noun TSELEM that means, “model or image.” It is used 17 times in the Old Testament, and most of its contexts refer to the image of a pagan idol, Num 33:52; Ezek 7:20; Amos 5:26. So, here we see an outward appearance in view, that being the “physical body.” Compare with YATSAR (forming) of Gen 2:7.

“Likeness” is the noun, DEMUTH that means, “likeness, similarity, copy, form, resemblance, etc.” This aspect is speaking of that which resembles God, which is our spiritual life, made up of our soul and spirit. It includes the five essences that make up man which ELOHIM also has.

The Greek and Latin fathers distinguished between “image” and “likeness,” referring the former to the physical, and the latter to the ethical part of God’s image.

“The combined sense of the verb and the noun in Hebrew Scripture presents both the transcendence and imminence of Yahweh, God’s utterly beyond comparison, yet intimately involved in and with His creation.” (Complete Biblical Library Hebrew-English Dictionary)

DEMUTH is also used in Daniel 10:16, as Daniel describes the messenger angel who “resembles” a man. A quick review of Ezekiel Chapter 1, and elsewhere, also indicate DEMUTH as visual similarity to man of God and angels. So, we see an overlap with “image,” TSELEM.

In the climactic act of creation, God did not say, “Let the land produce humankind.” He gave special attention to the creation of the human race. The command was given to Himself for Himself, when He said, “Let Us make man in Our image (or pattern), after Our likeness.” (with similarity and potential)

When Jesus was incarnated He had to be made “in human likeness.” He did not have that likeness as part of His nature before, Phil 2:7-8. So, we are similar but not exactly like God in material or essence.

The image and likeness of God also enables us to have fellowship with God. But it does not mean we are gods or can become gods, as evolution alludes to.

We were created dependent beings, Psa 8:5, and even in the new heavens and the new earth, we will continue to be dependent on the light and energy that God provides through Christ, as we both serve God and reign with Christ, Rev 21:23; 22:3-5.

Eph 4:24, “And put on the new self, which in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of the truth.”

Rom 4:17, “(As it is written, “A FATHER OF MANY NATIONS HAVE I MADE YOU”) in the presence of Him whom he believed, even God, who gives life to the dead and calls into being that which does not exist.”

As noted above, humans are distinct from other created life, being a “living being,” Gen 2:7, CHAYYAH NEPHESH, i.e., “a living soul,” created in the image and likeness of God. This signifies the two-fold nature of man’s being: that which is material, and that which is immaterial.

The material part of man was formed in all its completeness from the dust of the ground, lacking only that from God which gave life. Then He breathed NESHAMAH, the breath from God that created (BARA) a living rational soul and spirit, which was far removed from other forms of life that are in the world.

This inbreathing was an endless life, a life not subject to death, even though, as a penalty for sin, the body dies. Such is the character and duration of God-breathed human life.

This inbreathed life is not to be confused with “the gift of God (which) is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord”, Rom 6:23. That is the inbreathing of regeneration and is freely bestowed upon all who believe in Christ, with the result of saving the soul.

The Word of God records three Divine “in breathings.”

  • That by which life is given to created beings, Gen 2:7; 7:22; Rev 11:11.
  • The inbreathing into the disciples of the Holy Spirit by the resurrected Christ, John 20:22.
  • The inbreathing of the Word of God, which is the inspiration of God the Holy Spirit to the original writers of scripture, 2 Tim 3:16.

Combining in man that which is material, a physical body, and that which is immaterial, a soul and spirit, man is related to God in two directions; 1) to substance, and 2) to spirit existence.

So, adapted is the body to the purposes and functions of the immaterial man that he in no wise becomes conscious of any separation between the body and the soul. All ecstasy, pain, sensation, or ability which expresses itself in and through the body is identified as one’s own person and as belonging to one’s own self.” (R.B. Thieme Jr.)

In an exceptional spiritual experience, just as Daniel had of God’s messenger, so too did Paul in 2 Cor 12:2 where he said, “whether in the body, I cannot tell; or whether out of the body, I cannot tell: God knows.”

Although the material and immaterial parts of man are often distinguished from each other and referenced as component parts of man’s being, man is a unity, one being, and the material and immaterial can be separated only by God and at physical death.

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