The Beatitudes & The Doctrine of Salt
Notes from – Mat 5:3-14 w/ Luke 6
Matt 5:1-2, “When Jesus saw the crowds, He went up on the mountain; and after He sat down, His disciples came to Him. 2 He opened His mouth and began to teach them, saying,”
The eight Beatitudes have continuity.
- The First Seven Beatitudes are Expressing Dispositions of the Heart, Your Mental Attitude.
Mat 5:3, “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”
“Blessed” – Makarioi = Points to what is inward, happiness. Joy and contentment inside our soul, based on what’s in our soul. It is not superficial outward trends.
1) “The poor in spirit” – Denotes the fact of a sin nature (MAT 5:3).
Those who in their deepest consciousness realize their entire need. (Intellectual understanding.)
“Theirs is the Kingdom” = Present, Active, Indicative
Poor in spirit are enriched with the fullness of Christ, the full enjoyment of an already possessed inheritance.
Mat 5:4, “Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.”
2) “They that mourn,” (MAT 5:4).
Not mourning of being under pressure of the problems of life, nor sorrow on account of committed sins. It is the entire feeling brought about by the sense of our spiritual poverty. It is the response, in love, to the sin nature which leads to repentance / confessing our sins. 1 John 1:9; 2:9-10
This is the complement to the first.
“Comforted” – Future, Passive, Indicative
The peace and contentment we experience while on earth, with the promise of ultimate joy in the eternal state. Rev 21:4
Mat 5:5, “Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth.”
3) “The meek” – Describes not the weak, but rather strength that is surrendered to God in a new birth experience.
(MAT 5:5). “Humble / gentle” – Inherent – Future, Passive, Indicative
Speaking to blessing and rewards. For the Jew, it is the new earth and Promised Land, for the Jew and Gentile, Eternal Blessings. 1 Cor 3:10ff
Psa 37:11, “But the humble will inherit the land and will delight themselves in abundant prosperity.”
Mat 5:6, “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.”
4) To “hunger and thirst after righteousness,” signifies the strong desire for the intake of the Word and to become more Christ-like (MAT 5:6).
“Satisfied” – Future, Passive, Indicative, chortazoô [khor-tad’-zo] = To gorge, supply food in abundance, feed, fill, satisfy. “Shall be saturated”
Psa 17:15, “As for me, I shall behold Your face in righteousness; I will be satisfied with Your likeness when I awake.”
The first 4-Beatitudes represent the believer as conscious of their need of salvation and acting accordingly to that character.
- The Next Three Beatitudes Represent the Believer Having Already Found Salvation and Acting Accordingly in the Spiritual Life.
Mat 5:7, “Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy.”
5) “The merciful,” show an attitude of forgiveness (MAT 5:7).
Psa 17:25, “With the merciful You show Yourself merciful.”
Mat 25:35-36, “For I was hungry, and you gave Me something to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me something to drink; I was a stranger, and you invited Me in; 36naked, and you clothed Me; I was sick, and you visited Me; I was in prison, and you came to Me.”
“Hungry” = One who craves / desires the food of the word that is sustenance for life.
Deut 8:3, “He humbled you and let you be hungry, and fed you with manna which you did not know, nor did your fathers know, that He might make you understand that man does not live by bread alone, but man lives by everything that proceeds out of the mouth of the LORD.”
1 Sam 2:5 “But those who were hungry cease to hunger.”
Rom 12:20-21, “But if your enemy is hungry, feed him, and if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in so doing you will heap burning coals on his head. 21Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.”
“Thirsty” = One who desires the refreshing satisfaction of the Word for salvation.
Deut 8:15, “He led you through the great and terrible wilderness, with its fiery serpents and scorpions and thirsty ground where there was no water; He brought water for you out of the rock of flint.”
Rev 22:17, “The Spirit and the bride say, “Come.” And let the one who hears say, “Come.” And let the one who is thirsty come; let the one who wishes take the water of life without cost.”
“Stranger” = Someone who is not part of your family, (the Royal family).
Gen 23:4, “I am a stranger and a sojourner among you; give me a burial site among you that I may bury my dead out of my sight.”
(Abraham wishing to bury Sarah in the land of Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan.)
Ex 12:48, “But if a stranger sojourns with you, and celebrates the Passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near to celebrate it; and he shall be like a native of the land. But no uncircumcised person may eat of it.”
Read: John 10:1-10
“Naked” = Someone who has not been clothed with the filling of the Holy Spirit and the Word of God.
Gen 2:25, “And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed.”
Gen 3:11, “And He said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not to eat?”
Gumnos = Naked, poorly clothed.
1 Cor 4:11, “To this present hour we are both hungry and thirsty, and are poorly clothed, and are roughly treated, and are homeless;”
“Sick” = Someone who in the depravity of their soul is controlled by the Sin Nature and is without strength or power.
Sick = astheneô [as-then-eh’-o] which means, “Without strength, to be feeble (in any sense), be diseased, impotent folk (man), (be) sick, (be, be made) weak.”
Gen 30:42, “but when the flock was feeble, he did not put them in; so the feebler were Laban’s and the stronger Jacob’s.”
“Feeble” = עָטַף – ataph [aw-taf’] means, “To cloth, (from the idea of darkness) to languish, cover (over), fail, faint, hide self, be overwhelmed.”
“Weak” – Gen 29:15, 31
Heb 12:12, “Therefore, strengthen the hands that are weak and the knees that are feeble.”
“Prison” = A holding place, based on a just and deserved judgement. Someone who is sentenced to the eternal lake of fire, because they have not accepted the pardon.
Gen 42:17, “So he put them all together in prison for three days.” (Joseph holding his brothers)
“prison” – φυλακή – phulakeô [foo-lak-ay’], means, “a guarding; figuratively the place, the condition, or the time, cage, prison.”
Rev 20:7 When the thousand years are completed, Satan will be released from his prison.
“Receive mercy” – Future, Passive, Indicative
Mat 25:34 “Then the King will say to those on His right, ‘Come, you who are blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.”
Mercy is that in God which provided for sinful man.
Grace is that in God which acts freely to save and bless mankind, because all the demands of holiness (Righteousness & Justice) have been satisfied in Christ.
The difference between grace and mercy is that mercy is that within God which provides for man, while grace is the expression of that provision!
Heb 4:16, “Let us therefore draw near with confidence to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy and may find grace to help in time of need.”
We receive mercy for our past mistakes and grace for our spiritual strength and integrity under pressure.
Read: Mat 18:21-35
Mat 5:8, “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.”
6) “The pure in heart” – Strive to apply the Word daily through the filling of the Holy Spirit (MAT 5:8).
Acts 15:9 “and He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith.”
Heb 10:22, “let us draw near with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.”
Heb 9:14, “how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?”
When Jesus spoke these words, it was a striking contrast to the then misguided focus on ceremonial washing and purification. Jesus was pointing them back to the correct application of Old Testament doctrines. Psa 32:1-11; w/ Isa 6:5-10; Rom 4:5-8
1 John 1:6-7, “If we say that we have fellowship with Him and yet walk in the darkness, we lie and do not practice the truth; 7but if we walk in the Light as He Himself is in the Light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus His Son cleanses us from all sin.”
“Shall see God” – Future, Middle Deponent, Indicative, Third Person
“See” – horaô [hor-ah’-o], means, “To stare at, to discern clearly (physically or mentally); to attend to; behold, perceive, see, take heed.”
Middle = The subject is acting upon itself.
Deponent = Treats like the Active Voice.
When you have a cleansed soul, now you can understand the things of God and who He is clearly.
The Pure of heart will stare in awe at God and receive the ultimate purification/sanctification – the fullness of God.
1 John 3:2-3, “Beloved, now we are children of God, and it has not appeared as yet what we will be. We know that when He appears, we will be like Him, because we will see Him just as He is. 3And everyone who has this hope fixed on Him purifies (hagnizo – makes clean) himself, just as He is pure.”
Heb 12:14 NASB, “Pursue peace with all men, and the sanctification without which no one will see the Lord.”
Heb 12:14 KJV, “Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord:”
Hagiasmos – ἁγιασμός – (hag-ee-as-mos’), means, “Purification, purity, a purifier, holiness, consecration, sanctification of heart and life.”
Holiness / Sanctification / Consecrate / Purification: Is the practical effect produced within your heart, through the washing of regeneration and continual washing of the word, that is demonstrated through your resultant character in spiritual activity.
Rev 22:3-4, “There will no longer be any curse; and the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and His bond-servants will serve Him; 4they will see His face, and His name will be on their foreheads.”
Mat 5:9, “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.”
7) “The peacemakers” exert a relaxed mental attitude in the storms of life and provide others with the same opportunity for peace, the Gospel message, (MAT 5:9).
Col 1:20, “and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross; through Him, I say, whether things on earth or things in heaven.”
Prov 12:20, “Deceit is in the heart of those who devise evil, But counselors of peace have joy.” (inner happiness)
Read: 2 Cor 5:16-21
When this reconciliation actually takes place, and you have Phil 4:7……
Phil 4:7, “And the peace of God, which surpasses all comprehension, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.”
… the peace-receivers become transformed into peace diffusers / peace givers. Isa 6:5-10
Then God is seen, reflected in you. And, by the family likeness, you, the peacemakers, are recognized as the children of God.
“Called sons” – Future, Passive, Indicative
Rom 8:14, “For all who are being led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God.”
Rom 8:16, “The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God.”
Mat 5:11-12, “Blessed are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me. 12Rejoice and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great; for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.”
8) In the eighth or supplementary beatitude, we see that the inward heart is described in seven features of character.
Seven is the number of completion/perfection, so accomplishing the seven-fold characteristics brings about an intended perfect blessedness or happiness.
- Now turning to the Eighth Beatitude, by first noting that “eight” (8) (Sh’moneh) comes from a root word (Shah’meyn), which means to: “make fat, to cover with fat, or to super abound.”
As a Participle it means, “one who has strength.”
As a Noun it means, “superabundant fertility or satiating.”
- Eight (8) stands for the 8th day, which is one over Seven (7) “prefect completion” and is the first in a new series, as well as being 8th.
- The Feast of Tabernacles lasted Eight (8) days, with reference to the Incarnation of Christ. John 1:14
- The transfiguration took place on the 8th day.
As such 8 (7+1) is associated with Resurrection and Regeneration, the beginning of a new era or order.
- Noah the 8th person first stepped out on a regenerated world.
- Eight (8) souls passed through it with him to the new or regenerated world, 1 Peter 3:20.
- Circumcision was performed on the 8th day, Gen 17:12, as a foreshadowing of the true circumcision of the Heart.
Col 2:11 – A New Creation.
- The first born was given to Jehovah on the 8th day Ex 22:29-30.
- Christ rose on the 1st day of the week which is also the 8th day.
- The Bible tells of eight (8) individual resurrections other than that of the Lord and the saints.
“Three” in the Old Testament, (1 Kings 17:17-25, 2 Kings 4:32-37; & 13:20-21), which correspond to “three” in the Gospels: Luke 7:11-18; Mark 5:35 w/ Luke 8:49, and John 11.
- 1st the son of a widow.
- 2nd the child of a rich person.
- 3rd a full-grown man, after burial.
- And there are 2 in Acts (9 & 20).
So, relating the significance of eight (8) with the 8 Beatitudes: With your newfound superabundant strength, buckle down and get ready for a brand-new week.
Executing the plan of God to the fullest includes the Seven (7) inward attitudes found in the heart of the mature believer, plus one, persecution by man.
“Happy are those persecuted,” denotes faithfulness under stress, when and by applying the 11 Problem Solving Devices arriving at the 11th PSD = Sharing the Happiness of God. (MAT 5:10-12).
The Eighth Beatitude denotes the possessor of the first Seven Beatitudes, on account for which they are persecuted. 2 Tim 3:12
2 Tim 3:12, “Indeed, all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will be persecuted.”
This 8th Beatitude feature is also in the Passive Voice, representing something that you receive, as opposed to something you do on your own.
(Vs. 10). “Those persecuted” – diókó [dee-o’-ko], Verb Participle: Perfect, Passive, Nominative, Plural – dediogmenoi – δεδιωγμένοι.
A prolonged and causative persecution, ensue, follow after, chase, given to suffer, prosecute.
Prefect Tense: The persecutions took place in the past, with the results continuing to the present.
Passive Voice: They receive the persecution from others.
Dediogmenoi – “Happy are those who have been and continue to receive persecutions on account of righteousness,”
This Passive Verb explains the treatment that the believer possessing the family characteristics, described in the first Seven Beatitudes, may expect from the world.
Jesus Christ ends His introductory frame work with a Forewarning: The world’s estimation and treatment of the believer exemplifying the 7-characteristics will be the opposite of His.
Mat 5:10, “Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”
Vs 10, “…Persecuted on account of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”
On whose account are we “persecuted” – Righteousness sake or on account of Christ.
1 John 2:1, “My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.”
This encouragement is held out to endure such persecutions, as a continuation of what was experienced by the Old Testament saints.
Why would such beautiful characteristics be attacked?
John 3:20, “For everyone who does evil hates the Light, and does not come to the Light for fear that his deeds will be exposed.”
John 7:7, “The world cannot hate you, but it hates Me because I testify of it, that its deeds are evil.”
Read: John 15:18-25 w/ 2 Chron. 18:7
John 15:22: Christ lays down the basic principle that revelation brings responsibility. Luke 12:48
His words and His works revealed the will of God and the sinfulness of men. Mankind has no excuse.
The fact that Jews and Gentiles alike joined together in hating and crucifying Christ is proof that all people are sinners and guilty before God.
Rom 2:12, “For all who have sinned without the Law will also perish without the Law, and all who have sinned under the Law will be judged by the Law.”
In Jesus’ incarnation and through His words, the world has been given a clear vision of righteousness.
Measured against the standard of Jesus’ perfect life, as against the standard of His words, every shred of false pride and every excuse is stripped away, and the world stands exposed as guilty before God. It is the moral message implicit in the name of Christ that arouses hatred, for that moral message exposes every human being as guilty of sin.
The 7 characteristics of a righteous believer flies in the face of the world’s way of doing things; startling and shaking up their whole system of thought and action. Recognizing the need for a Savior runs counter to the pride of men’s heart.
A mournful disposition in the view of our universal deficiencies before God is refuted and rejected by the callous, indifferent, self-gratifying world.
A humble and quiet spirit grates against the proud, resentful spirit of the world.
Craving after spiritual phenomenon rebukes the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of the life. Likewise, the merciful spirit rebukes the hard-heartedness of the world. Operating with a pure heart painfully contrasts hypocrisy.
The peacemaker cannot easily be endured by the contentious quarrelsome world. This is how righteousness comes to be persecuted. Blessed are they who in spite of this, dare to be righteous!
Continuing in: Mat 5:10, “For theirs is the **Kingdom of Heaven”
“Is” = Estin – Present, Active, Indicative
**The everlasting promise to all believers.**
Mat 5:11, “Blessed are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me.”
“Cast insults” = oneidezoô [on-i-did’-zo] – Verb: Aorist, Active, Subjunctive
Subjunctive mood expresses the action as conceivable, but not necessarily a reality. It is a supposed or desired action.
It means, “To defame, denounce, insult, rail at, taunt, reproach, revile, cast in one’s teeth, or impute to one.”
Abuse you to your face, as opposed to behind your back.
“Persecute” (Dioko) in this verse, and is also in the Aorist, Active, Subjunctive. versus the Perfect tense (past that continues), Passive.
A prolonged and causative persecution, ensue, chase, given to suffer, prosecute, but this time it’s potential (subjunctive).
Subjunctive: maybe you will be persecuted, maybe you won’t be.
“Falsely” – pseudomai [psyoo’-dom-ahee] – Verb/Participle: Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Nominative, which means, “To utter an untruth or attempt to deceive by falsehood, falsely, lie.”
“Say” – Lego/Eiponsin = Aorist, Active, Subjunctive
“Evil” – poneôros [pon-ay-ros’], which means, “Hurtful, evil, calamitous, ill, diseased, vicious, malice, bad, evil, grievous, harm, wicked.”
Verse 10 signifies that you have been and will be run down / persecuted because of Jesus Christ being in your life. [perfect, passive]
In addition, you may also have insults thrown in your face, along with potential continued pursuit of false accusations trying to defame what you stand for, and evil / wicked plans may be devised against you.
What should the believer say? … BRING IT ON!!!!
What does Christ say in Mat 5:11? —> “On account of Me”.
Christ this time unites Himself with righteousness and clearly defines why these things will occur.
Acts 3:14 But you disowned the Holy and Righteous One.
Matt 5:12, “Rejoice and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great; for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.”
Vs. 12, “Rejoice and be glad”
“Rejoice” – chairoô [khah’ee-ro], which means, “To be glad, rejoice exceedingly, be well, thrive.”
“Glad” – agalliaoô [ag-al-lee-ah’-o] – agalliáō (comes from agan, “much, very,” and hállomai, “jump, leap”) – hallomai = to jump; figuratively to gush, leap, spring up, and is a Verb: Present, Middle, Imperative. It means, “To jump for joy, exult, be exceeding glad, with exceeding joy, and rejoice greatly.”
Middle Voice: Represents the subject as acting upon himself.
Imperative Mood: The appeal of our Lord’s will for us. It’s his intention rather than a probability or possibility.
This word is used in this way only in 1 Peter 1:6 & 8.
In Luke 6:20-22, we have a partial rendering of the Beatitudes.
Luke 6:20-22, “And turning His gaze toward His disciples, He began to say, “Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. 21Blessed are you who hunger now, for you shall be satisfied. Blessed are you who weep now, for you shall laugh. 22Blessed are you when men hate you, and ostracize you, and insult you, and scorn your name as evil, for the sake of the Son of Man.”
We are given a commanded that we should be exceedingly joyful in our soul and our body when, due to our kinship with The Lord Jesus Christ, we continually receive persecutions and based on our advance in God’s plan, we may come under various attacks.
Back to Matt 5:12, “Great” – polus [pol-oos’], which means, “Much, many, large.”
God’s promise to us; blessings and rewards beyond our imagination.
For who? The believer who has the mental attitudes found not in the world but in Christ. 1 John 5:1-5
Who are the overcomers? Those that persevere through persecutions.
What are the rewards? Gold, Silver, Precious Gems, 1 Cor 3:12.
- Rev 2:7 – Eat of the tree of life in Paradise
- Rev 2:11 – Not hurt by the Second Death
- Rev 2:17 – Some of the Hidden Manna
- Rev 2:17 – A White Stone with a Title that is unique to you
- Rev 2:26 – Authority over the Nations
- Rev 2:28 – The Order of the Morning Star
- Rev 3:5 – Uniform of Glory / Clothed in White
- Rev 3:5 – Name in the Book of Life
- Rev 3:5 – Personally acknowledge by Christ to the Father and the Angels
- Rev 3:12 – A Pillar in the Temple – Historical record section just about you
- Rev 3:12 – Branded with the Name of the Father and His City, the new Name of Christ
- Rev 3:21 – Seated with Christ on His throne
Mat 5:12b, “for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.”
“Persecuted” = Edioxan [Ee-die’-oaks-en] -Verb Aorist, Active, Indicative.
2 Chron 36:16, “but they continually mocked the messengers of God, despised His words and scoffed at His prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against His people, until there was no remedy.”
John 15:20, “Remember the word that I said to you, ‘A slave is not greater than his master.’ If they persecuted Me, they will also persecute you; if they kept My word, they will keep yours also.”
Acts 7:52, “Which one of the prophets did your fathers not persecute? They killed those who had previously announced the coming of the Righteous One, whose betrayers and murderers you have now become;”
Read: 1 Thes 2:1-20; Heb 11:32-40; James 5:7-11
Doctrine of Salt
Mat 5:13, “You are the salt of the earth.”
Etymology: “Salt” – ἅλας – halas
1) Salt with which food is seasoned and sacrifices are sprinkled.
2) Those kinds of saline matter used to fertilize arable land.
3) Salt is a symbol of lasting concord, because it protects food from putrefaction and preserves it unchanged.
Accordingly, in the solemn ratification of compacts, the Orientals were, and are to this day, accustomed to partake of salt together.
4) Wisdom and grace exhibited in speech.
ἅλας – halas – salt; figuratively prudence
Synonyms for prudence include: husbandry, discretion, foresight, forethought, and circumspection.
- Prudence implies not only caution, but also the capacity for judging in advance the probable results of one’s actions.
- Discretion suggests prudence coupled with wise self-restraint, as in resisting the impulse to take rash action.
- Foresight implies the ability to foresee and make provision for what may happen.
- Forethought suggests advance consideration of future eventualities. Careful forethought to avoid harm or risk followed by Subjunctive.
- Circumspection implies discretion together with prudent heed for possible consequences, as out of concern for moral or social repercussions.
“The necessity of the times, more than ever, calls for our utmost circumspection, deliberation, fortitude and perseverance” (Samuel Adams).
Salt portrays judgment or discipline and was used as a sign of judgment after defeating an enemy.
- In Gen 19:26, Lot’s wife turned into a pillar of salt, signifying her rebellion against God’s will and her subsequent defeat in the spiritual life.
- In Deut 29:23, Sodom was destroyed and made forever barren by salt, signifying God’s judgment against apostasy and Satan’s rule defeated. Psa 107:34; Jer 17:6; Zeph 2:9
- In Judges 9:45, salt was sown on a defeated city, which symbolically condemned the land to desolation.
- In Mark 9:47‑49, salt is part of eternal judgment, the lake of fire, and speaks to the preserving of the soul in eternal condemnation.
Mark 9:48, “where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched. 49For everyone will be salted with fire.”
Salt was Used for Preserving and Seasoning Food.
- If you ate salt with someone, you made a covenant with him or her, and this meant that you were safe as long as you were with them. Likewise, eating bread and salt was a sign of friendship.
Salt is Used in the Bible for Seasoning Food. Job 6:6‑7
Salt refers to the word of God, and lack of seasoning (or the Word) is used to indicate human viewpoint. The word of God is what gives seasoning to the mental attitude and the spiritual life. Likewise, it is what judges the world.
John 12:48, “He who rejects Me and does not receive My sayings, has one who judges him; the word I spoke is what will judge him at the last day.”
Salt was Used in the Levitical Offerings to Represent Eternal Security.
- In the food offering of Lev 2:13, salt portrayed eternal security in God’s plan.
Lev 2:13, “‘Every grain offering of yours, moreover, you shall season with salt, so that the salt of the covenant of your God shall not be lacking from your grain offering; with all your offerings you shall offer salt.”
Salt was used in the food offering to indicate that once you had believed in Christ, you are in his hands forever, and He is the source of your protection and blessing.
The “salt of the covenant” means that salt is used as a guarantee that expresses permanence and incorruption regarding the eternal relationship between God and the believer. Num 18:19; 2 Chron 13:5
2 Chron 13:5, “Do you not know that the LORD God of Israel gave the rule over Israel forever to David and his sons by a covenant of salt?”
Numb 18:19, “All the offerings of the holy gifts, which the sons of Israel offer to the LORD, I have given to you and your sons and your daughters with you, as a perpetual allotment. It is an everlasting covenant of salt before the LORD to you and your descendants with you.”
- Salt was used in the burnt offering also to indicate eternal security with emphasis on the efficacious work of Jesus Christ.
In Ezra 6:9-10, the king of Persia commanded that salt be given “without fail” to the Levitical Priests for use in the offerings to God in the new temple.
Ezra 6:9, “Whatever is needed, both young bulls, rams, and lambs for a burnt offering to the God of heaven, and wheat, salt, wine and anointing oil, as the priests in Jerusalem request, it is to be given to them daily without fail, 10that they may offer acceptable (sweet pleasing) sacrifices to the God of heaven and pray for the life of the king and his sons.”
In Ezek 43:24, we see the same principle in the Millennium.
In Birth, Salt was Used as an Antiseptic, Ezek 16:4.
The antiseptic of your soul is the Word of God, which is especially potent to purify when used under the principle of reversion recovery. 2 Kings 2:19-22
Salt is Analogous to the Mature Believer in the Verbal Expression of Divine Viewpoint. Col 4:6; Jas 3:10‑12
Col 4:5, “Conduct yourselves with wisdom toward outsiders, making the most of the opportunity. 6Let your speech always be with grace, as though seasoned with salt, so that you will know how you should respond to each person.”
Salt is Analogous to the Mature Believer Preserving His Nation. Mt 5:13; Mk 9:50
Mark 9:50, “Salt is good; but if the salt becomes unsalty, with what will you make it salty again? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with one another.”
The greatest thing you can do is have salt (the word of God) in you.
Unsaltiness (tasteless) is Analogous to Reversionism and is Used to Portray Divine Discipline.
Lk 14:34‑35, “Therefore, salt is good; but if even salt has become tasteless, with what will it be seasoned? 35It is useless either for the soil or for the manure pile; it is thrown out. He who has ears to hear, let him hear.”
“Tasteless salt is neither good for the soil or for the manure pile.” It neither brings judgment upon the land nor preserves the fertilizer of the land.
Mat 5:13, “You are the salt of the earth; but if the salt has become tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men.”
“Tasteless” – moôrainoô [mo-rah’ee-no] – Moranthe [mo-ran-thay] and is a: Verb: Aorist, Passive, Subjunctive and comes from moôros, “dull or stupid (as if shut up), that is; blockhead, absurd, lose savour, godless. Make foolish; tasteless.”
Figuratively, “To make or act as a simpleton.”
Salt that has lost its strength and flavour
Passive Voice: The dull and stupid believer receives their absurdness by taking in the world’s way of thinking and becomes tasteless and useless.
Job 6:6, “Can something tasteless be eaten without salt, Or is there any taste in the white of an egg?”
The Hebrew word is Taphel – “tasteless, unseasoned, foolish frivolous.”
A tasteless believer no longer has the potency of the word of God, coupled with the filling of the Holy Spirit functioning in their soul, to preserve themselves nor those in their periphery. No Power – No Precedence!
Mat 5:13, “made salty again” = ἁλισθήσεται (halisthēsetai) – Verb: Future, Passive, Indicative of Halas, and means, “Restore Flavor”
This word is used in the Future/Passive/Indicative, also in Mark 9:49.
Mark 9:49, “For everyone will be salted with fire.”
Once you have lost the word of God that was once resident within your soul, it is very, very difficult to regain that ground, but not impossible.
When the unregenerated man, after receiving the salt of the Gospel message rejects it, it is highly unlikely that he will have that same opportunity again.
Mat 5:13, “It is henceforth good for nothing,”
“Good” = ischuó [is-khoo’-o] – ἰσχύω – Verb: Present, Active, Indicative. It comes from ischus which means, “To have (or exercise) force (literally or figuratively). To exert, wield power, to have strength to overcome, to be a force, to be serviceable.”
Oudeis [oo-dice] – οὐδείς. Comes from Ouk, the strongest negative in the Greek, meaning, “No one, Nothing.”
The point here is close to that expressed by a Rabbi at the end of the first century. When asked, “How one could make saltless salt salty again,” he replied that, “One should salt it with the afterbirth of a mule.” Being sterile, mules have no afterbirth, and he was saying that those who ask a stupid question, receive a stupid answer. Real salt does not lose its saltiness; but if it did, what would you do to restore its salty flavor—salt it?
You are no longer utilizing the two power options; therefore, you no longer have any power or IMPACT.
Mat 5:13, “Except to be thrown out,”
“if not” – (Ei Me) = “Except.”
(Blethen) – βληθὲν – Verb: Aorist, Passive, Participle, which means, “throw, cast.”
ἔξω (exō) – Adverb = “Outside, Out of doors, Away.”
Ei me blethen exo – “If not thrown out, except to be thrown out/away.”
Next in, Mat 5:13,”and to be trodden under foot of men.”
(katapateô) – καταπατέω – Verb: Present, Passive, Infinitive (noting the action). Comes from Kata = down, against, according; and Pateo = trample. It means, “To tread down, stepping, trample…under, trampled under foot.”
Metaphorically it means, “To treat with rudeness and insult, to spurn, treat with insulting neglect.”
Passive: Without the power of God, you will be left to be repeatedly stepped on by the world.
To be trodden underfoot—There was a species of salt in Judea, which was generated at the lake Asphaltites, and hence called bituminous (Roadway) salt, easily rendered flavorless, and of no other use but to be spread in a part of the temple, to prevent slipping in wet weather.
If the believer ignores God’s power available to them (salt), and falls into reversionism, they are no longer useful for the work of service (tasteless). They will find it hard, even impossible to regain the doctrine they lost (how made salty again), and are left (thrown out) to be run over by the cosmic system (trampled underfoot).
Read: 2 Kings 7:15-20 (Elisha)
raòmas – [raw-mas’] = “To tread upon, oppressor, stamp upon.”
Read: Luke 8:4-18
Luke 21:24, “and they will fall by the edge of the sword, and will be led captive into all the nations; and Jerusalem will be trampled under foot by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.”
Read: Heb 10:19-29
There are two pictures of the Christian in closing: salt and the light.
Salt speaks of inward character that influences a decaying world, either for judgment or preservation.
Light speaks of the outward testimony of good works that point to God.
Our task is to keep our lives pure that we might “salt” this earth and hold back corruption so that the Gospel can get out. Our good works must accompany our dedicated lives as we let the light of Jesus Christ shine.
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Now, back to Mathew, Chapter 5:
Greek transliteration: Gmeis este to phos tou kosmou. ou dunatai polis krubenai epano horous keimene
Greek: ὑμεῖς ἐστε τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου. οὐ δύναται πόλις κρυβῆναι ἐπάνω ὄρους κειμένη
Mat 5:14, ““You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden;”
Gmeis from SU = “you or you all.”
Este – Present, Active, Indicative of eimi = “to be or are.”
To [ho] = “the.”
Phos = “To shine, by rays; luminousness, fire, light.” Nominative, Neuter, Singular.
Nominative: Subject of the sentence = being Luminous in this dark world.
Neuter: It’s neither masculine speaking of God the Father or the Son, nor is it feminine speaking of man. It’s in the Neuter, signifying that God the Holy Spirit is the One who is the power to light our Lights.
Kosmou which comes from Kosmos: “World, order, adornment, ornament, and decoration.”
Tou – [Genitive of ho] = “of the.”
Ou or ouk – “not,” strongest negative in the Greek.
Dunatai – “To be able, to have power.” Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative.
Present Tense: If you have the power of God the Holy Spirit, you will not be hidden from the world, even if you try.
Polis – Feminine for “City.”
Krubenai Verb: Aorist, Passive, Infinitive of Krupto [kroop’-to], which means, “To conceal by covering, hide self, keep secret, secret [-ly].”
Epano: “Upon, over, above.”
Orous: “A mountain or a hill.”
Keimene – Verb Participle: Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, which means, “Lie, be, exist; stand, be standing; be destined or appointed; store up.”
Literally it says, “You all are the light world of the. Not able to city can conceal by covering upon a hill standing.”
When we put it in the correct English, it says, “You all are the light of the world. A city standing upon a hill cannot be concealed by covering.”
MAT 5:3-16 SUMMARY
1) vs 3 = Salvation
2) vs 4 = Rebound
3) vs 5 = Mental Attitude for Building Your Soul
4) vs 6 = Desire for the Word
5) vs 7 = Application of the Word
6) vs 8 = Walk with God
7) vs 9 = Light Begins to Shine
8) vs 10 = Suffering for Blessing, stage 1 -Providential Preventative Suffering at Spiritual Self-Esteem (S.S.E.)
9) vs 11 = Suffering for Blessing, stage 2 – Momentum Testing at Spiritual Autonomy (S.A.)
Evidence Testing at Spiritual Maturity (S.M.)
All suffering for blessing is designed by God for the believer’s advance to spiritual maturity and the glorification of God. Suffering for blessing is always designed to advance you, by putting muscle on your spiritual life.
10) vs 12 = Encouragement / Exhortation
11) vs 13-16 = Invisible Hero
Mat 5:15-16, “nor does anyone light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on the lampstand, and it gives light to all who are in the house. 16Let your light shine before men in such a way that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven.”
Mat 5:14-16 (See the Doctrine of Light) (coming soon)